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Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.
During the last decade, the cost of DNA sequencing technologies has decreased several orders of magnitude, with the proportional increase of speed and throughput. Human Genome Project took almost 15 years to complete the sequence of the human genome. With the second and third generation technologies, this can be done in the matter of days or hours. This progress and availability of sequencing instruments to virtually every researcher leads to replacing of many techniques with DNA sequencing and opens new venues of research. DNA sequencing is used to investigate basic biological phenomena, and is probably going to be increasingly used in the context of health care (preimplantation diagnostics, oncology, infectious diseases). Current trends are aiming towards the price of 1000$ for sequencing of one human genome. Without any doubt, we can expect improvement of existing and the development of fourth generation technologies in the coming years.
One of the key issues of organogenesis is the understanding of mechanisms underlying the differentiation of progenitor cells into more specialized cells of individual tissues. Recent transcriptomic and proteomic approaches of molecular biology have led to the identification of several factors and mechanisms regulating morphogenesis at the genetic level which affect the function of already differentiated cells. In the last few years, several reports about osteoblastogenesis have been published. This review presents recent findings on the role of the most important transcription factors supporting bone formation.
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Colibacillosis in poultry is relating with the colonisation with so called Avian Pathogen E. coli (APEC) strains. It is already known that usually in the APEC isolates are present at least 13 virulence-associated genes. We selected 12 non-repetitive E. coli isolates from different Romanian poultry outbreaks. Isolates have been evaluated for the presence of the virulence-associated genes, iroN and iucC. The DNA extraction was made using QIAamp cador Pathogen Mini Kit (Qiagen). The amplification protocol was: a cycle of denaturation at 94°C for 5 min followed by 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 63°C for 45 s and 72°C for 105 s, and a cycle of 72°C for 7 min. Both virulence-associated genes were identified in 83.33% (11/12) isolates. In two APEC isolates, only one gene was identified, iroN or iucC, respectively. According to these preliminary results it could be assumed that iroN and iucC genes are independently expressing their virulence.
References Hussain SA, James ND. Molecular markers in bladder cancer. Seminars in Radiation Oncology 2005: 15: 3-9. Al-Sukhun S, Hussain M. Molecularbiology of transitional cell carcinoma. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 2003: 47: 181-93. Chopin DK, Gattegno B. Superficial bladder tumors. E Urol 2002: 42: 533-41. Shin MS, Kim HS, Kang CS, et al. Inactivating mutations of CASP10 gene in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Blood 2002: 99: 4094-9. Kim HS, Lee JW, Suong JH, et al. Inactivating mutations of caspase-8 gene in colorectal carcinomas
References Palliser D. An siRNA-based microbicide protects mice from lethal herpes simplex virus infection. Nature 2006; 439: 89-94. Gao FB. Posttranscriptional control of neuronal development by microRNA networks. Trends in Neurosciences. 2008; 31: 20-6. Ruvkun G. ≫Molecularbiology. Glimpses of a tiny RNA world≪. Science 2001; 294: 797-9. Gottesman S. The small RNA regulators of Escherichia coli: Roles and mechanisms. Ann Rev Microbiol 2004; 58: 303-28. Zamore PD, Haley B. Ribo-gnome: The Big World of Small RNAs. Science 2005; 309: 1519-24. van