Olympic sport is a symbolic response to the literal evil of war. It establishes peace in its own way as there is always a need to redeem the evil of war. Sport is not what the mindful journalists think - a gathering of pagan mob, festival of youth or vanity fair of business traders. If, however, Olympic modernism ever became its own negation in the form of a spontaneous movement of liberation from moral constraints, legitimised by postmodern ideology, it would be a negation of the ethical ideal of friendship, i.e. it would be collective defiance of order as ordo amicitia pro pace. In consequence, Olympic modernism would deprive itself of the idea of universal good and lose its inherent order-making potential. Whoever then becomes a part of the motley movement against oneself, in which all standards of moral life in love are replaced by liberal aesthetic expressions, he or she becomes incomprehensible to oneself and others, like the proverbial black sheep in a family. Beware the poor in Olympic spirit of peace, as they will never be granted friendship. It will be a great loss to them as well as to the entire Olympic family. The Olympic Games of Peace must last as long as there are wars. The primary cause of Olympic sport is the experience of the evil of war. Olympic modernism uses sport as the foundation of its symbolic affirmation of the idea of friendship. It has not created sport, but has taken a great advantage of it, using the physical cultivation and the moral formation of the mighty sport club for free play (ludic sport) or paid play (professional sport). Although the Olympic costs are high, despite all the expenses, it is a highly profitable cultural enterprise. The order of friendship for peace, known as Olympic modernism, not only banishes the spectre of hatred but also provides culture with sanctity, making everybody's life more perfect.
In the history of Lithuanian architecture, the period of soviet modernism has made very problematical mark. The architectural and urbanist changes that were made in Lithuanian cities during this period are linked with the beginning and development of modern building practice. Many discussions causes the changes in the city centres that were made from the 1960s. New modern buildings that were built in the historic context changed its individuality and singularity. This article analyses architectural changes that were made from 1960s to1990s in the historic context of Vilnius and Panevėžys centres. The article suggests that during different decades of the soviet modernism period, the new architecture had a different approach to the historic context. To prove this suggestion, the article presents the most distinctive buildings that were built in the historic context of the selected city centres.
relativity in 1916.  In the 1920s and 1930s, architectural theoreticians considered Mendelssohn’s early opus to be expressionistic, which may be true, but his ideological impact was undeniable and necessary for the further course of architectural modernism.  Siegfried Gidion (Prague, 14 April 1888 - 10 April 1968 in Zurich, sometimes misspelt Siegfried Giedion) was a pupil of Heinrich Wolfflin, but soon adopted modern thinking in cosmology and the physics of Einstein. As the first secretary-general of the Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne he was
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The article aims to present the ways in which feature films of the 1960s, with all their beauty, became a canvas of times so important for the history of Polish architecture. Writing about the past exceeds a simple description of a historical object. It is also an attempt to present it on a film reel. In my reflections, I wish to concentrate on the relations operating between a feature film and such an architectural object, which, over the course of time, became iconic for the discipline. I want to focus on considerations regarding the ways of defining film and architecture as an element of spatial and visual memory, in the context of Polish heritage protection of architectural modernism.
The present paper aims to investigate, in brief, the controversial relationship between postmodernism and modernism; to outline, synthetically, the specific procedures of conceiving theatre performance in postmodernity; to analyze the performance narrative that, in postmodern era, reveals the indicible and the existential fragmentation. The research is carried out taking into consideration the end of postmodernism which was announced since the middle of the first decade of the 21st century. At the same time, besides the attempt to observe the phenomenon in its theatrical implications, the study pursues to delineate the decontextualization of theatricality from theatrical space and its recontextualization in sociopolitical space. In conclusion, the perspective beyond the end of postmodernity from which theatricality is evaluated intends to avoid the partisan thinking that any attempt to treat postmodernity requires.
Modernism in architecture of the lubuskie voivodeship is not dominating style. Objects created in the period of its greatest popularity are still fighting for recognition of their value as historical monuments. One of such facilities in Zielona Góra is building at Chopin street, where today is The Teacher Training Centre. However, originally object was intended to be a sports hall. The topic worth of further analysis is the construction of the building. The skeleton is a unique steel frame, made in 1930 by the famous pre-war company Fabrik und für Brückenbau Eisenkonstruktionen BEUCHELT & Co. Grünberg in Schlesien. In order to build walls the brick technology was used. It is a rarely seen combination that indicates the attempt to experiment with new solutions by engineers of the era of modernism.