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: suppression of carrot rust fly ( Psila rosae ) and cavity spot ( Phytium spp. ) infestation. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 18: 67-76. T ukahirwa E.M., C oaker T.H., 1982. Effect of mixed cropping on some insect pest of brassicas; reduced Brevicoryne brassicae infestations and influences on epigeal predators and the disturbance of oviposition behaviour in Delia brassicae . Ent. Exp. Appl. 32: 129-140. U vah I.I.I., C oaker T.H., 1984. Effect of mixed cropping on some insect pests of carrots and onions. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 36(2): 159-167. W iech K., K ałmuk J., 2005. Uprawy

fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil properties and their relationship to crop yield in the central Corn Belt, USA. Soil Till. Res. 98: 120-129. Jahansooz M.R., Yunusa I.A.M., Coventry D.R., Pal mer A.R., Eamus D., 2007. Radiation- and water use associated with growth and yields of wheat and chickpea in sole and mixed crops. Europ. J. Agron. 26: 275-282. Javed N., Gowen S.R., El-Hassan S.A., Inam-ul-Haq M., Shah ina F., Pembroke B., 2008. Efficacy of A. indica ( Azadirachta indica ) formulations on biology of root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne javanica ) on

Effect of Silage from Maize and Strip-Cropped Sorghum and Maize on Dairy Cow's Yield and Milk Composition

In an experiment conducted on 34 mid-lactation dairy cows of the Red-and-White and Black-and-White breed, in a random square design, the effect of maize or sorghum-maize silage present in partly mixed ration (PMR) on milk yield, milk composition and blood serum parameters was investigated. The PMR diet contained maize silage, which compared with PMR diet contained sorghum-maize silage made from strip-cropped plants. Both fodder plants were harvested with a 4-row precision chopper, which cut 2 rows of maize and 2 rows of sorghum, giving mixed maize/sorghum forage. The feeding experiment lasted 84 days and consisted of four sub-periods, each 21 days in length to record milk yield, feed and milk chemical composition, and blood parameters. In addition to PMR diets containing part of ration compound feedingstuffs, the cows received part of compound feedingstuffs given at feed stations to meet their nutritional requirement. The compound feedingstuffs in station were controlled by an electronic system related to actual cow's milk yield. Chemical composition of both silages and milk production efficiency were compared. The average dry matter intake in both groups was 18.80 vs 20.4±1.95 kg/day, but compound feedingstuff intake from station was 3.61 vs 4.56 (P>0.01). Milk yield was 21.8 and 20.5±0.51 kg/day, respectively (P>0.01). The amount of standardized fat and protein content of milk (FPCM) was 21.0 and 20.2 kg/g ±0.48 kg/day (P≥0.01). No significant differences were found in the fat, protein, casein, lactose, urea, total solids and solids not fat percentage of milk or in milk traits (acidity, renneting time, density) among groups (P≥0.01). Feeding cows PMR ration with maize silage significantly elevated total cholesterol (P<0.05), but decreased urea levels in blood plasma (P<0.01). It is concluded that strip cropping of sorghum and maize could be an alternative to maize grown as a pure stand in maize high-risk areas for dairy cows in mid-lactation.

Abstract

A study of the influence of intercropping broad bean with phacelia on the occurrence of weevils and broad bean beetles was conducted in the years 2006-2009. The harmfulness of Sitona spp. beetles feeding on the leaves (the number of U-shape notches and the number of damaged leaves) and the harmfulness of the larvae, as well as the feeding on the broad bean root nodules was taken into account. The harmfulness of the broad bean beetle was determined by assessing the condition of the seeds. The influence of phacelia on the presence of weevils (Sitona) and broad bean beetles (Bruchus rufimanus) as broad bean pests was not observed. A smaller amount of broad bean seeds damaged by the broad bean beetle was determined only in some of the years of the study in the plots in which the phacelia was intercropped with broad bean.

. 2009. Airborne interactions between undamaged plants of different cultivars affect insect herbivores and natural enemies. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 3 (4): 215-224. HUREJ M., TWARDOWSKI, J. 2003. The influence of mixed cropping of yellow lupin and spring triticale on phytophagous and beneficial insects. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych, 495: 243-250. (in Polish) LUNDGREN J.G., HESLER L.S., TILMON K., DASHIELL K., SCOTT R. 2008. Direct effects of soybean varietal selection and Aphis glycines-resistant soybeans on natural enemies. Arthropod

Abstract

Soil mining is a major problem of low technology farming and replenishing such loses is one of the problems farmers face. Trials conducted in 2004 and 2005 at Samaru, (11011’N, 07038’E and 686m a.s.l) in the northern Guinea savanna ecology of Nigeria, estimated the response of maize (Zea mays L.) and soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) intercrops to green manure from the soyabean companion crop at various nitrogen fertility levels. Treatments were a factorial combination of four maize/soyabean mixtures in replacement and additive mixtures as well as their sole crops and four nitrogen rates arranged in randomized complete block (RCBD) in three replicates. Treatments improved the soil’s physical and chemical (soil C: 2 – 10 %; total N: over 100%; CEC: 20-80%) properties in 2005. Maize in replacement mixture had heavier cobs and 100-seed weight than in additive mixtures; while two plants excelled three plants per stand in these yield components and grain yield per hectare. Soyabean in additive mixture had heavier pods and 100-seed weight and seed yield per hectare than in replacement mixture. Crops in three row plots had significantly heavier pods, 100-seed weight, and seed yield than those in two row plots. Yield and yield parameters of maize increased significantly with increase in the rate of N applied while for soyabeans the 60 and 90 kg N ha−1 were similar in yield and yield parameters. Mixtures gave higher than expected LER values of mixed crops. Maize LER values at 60 and 90 kg N ha−1 were higher than 1.00, making soyabean a bonus crop. Total LER for the crops showed that crops in mixtures performed better than combined sole crops at 90 kg N ha−1. Agronomic efficiency was highest at 12:2(A) cropping pattern and 30 kg N ha−1, while replacement mixtures had higher efficiency values at low N application and the 12:2(A) had higher efficiency value at higher N rates.

, 2014-15. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Division , Islamabad, pp.18-33. Iqbal, A. Ayub, M., Akbar, N. & Ahmad, R. (2006). Growth and forage yield response of maize-legume mixed cropping to different sowing techniques. Pak.J.Agri.Res., 43(3-4): 126-130. Joshi, J., Schmid, B. & Caldeira, M.C. (2004). Local adaptation enhances performance of common plant species. Ecol.Lett., 4: 536-544. Karar, H., Abdullah, A. & Hussain, A. (2017). Factors affecting seed production of lucerne and berseem at Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, Pakistan. Ram, S

References Smith J.G. 1976 b. Influence of crop background on natural enemies of aphids on Brussels sprouts. Ann. Appl. Biol. 83: 15-29. Theunissen J. 1994. Effects of intercropping on pest populations in vegetable crops. IOBC/OILB Bulletin 17/8: 153-158. Uvah I.I.I., Coaker T.H. 1984. Effect of mixed cropping on some insects pests of carrots and onion. Ent. Exp. et Appl. 36: 159-167. Wnuk A. 1973. Materiały do znajomości biologii mszycożernych bzygowatych ( Diptera, Syrphidae ). Zesz. Prob. Post. Nauk Roln. 144: 291-297. [in Polish] Wnuk A. 1982

References ANDRIST-RANGEL, Y. - EDWARDS, A.C. - HILLIER, S. - ÖBORN, I. 2007. Long-term dynamic of organic and conventional mixed cropping systems as related to management and soil properties. In Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 122, pp. 413-426. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2007.02.007. ANONYMOUS 2013. Zemědělství 2012 [Agriculture 2012]. Prague: Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. 126 pp. ISBN 978-80-7434-1 11-3. ASDAL, Å. - BAKKEN, A. 1999. Nutrient balances and yields during conversion to organic farming in two crop rotation systems. In OLESEN

Extension for Women Farmers. World Bank; Washington, D.C. USA. TANKO N. M. (1994): Contribution of Rural Women to Agricultural Planning and Economics of Developments in Nigeria, In: Ikpi A E and Olayemi J K (Eds): Winrock International for Agricultural Development, pp. 5-6. UWADIE S. A. (1993): Mechanisms for Improving the Effectiveness of TIV Women’s Participation in Agriculture through Farmer Education. UNN, Nigeria; PhD Thesis. YISEHAK K. (2008): Gender Responsibility in Small Holder Mixed-Crop Livestock Production System of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia. Livestock