S. Gopinath, A. Ramachandra Murthy, D. Ramya and Nagesh R. Iyer
7. S.H. Kosmatka, B. Kerkhoff, W.C. Panarese, Design and control of concrete mixtures, portland cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, USA , 2002.
8. SP: 23-1988, Handbook on concrete mixes, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1983.
9. IS-10262, 2009, Indian standard concrete mix proportioning - Guidelines (First revision), Bureau of India Standard, New Delhi, India.
10. IS-10262:1982, Indian Standard, Recommended guidelines for concrete mixdesign, Reaffirmed 2004, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi
Lidia Radu, Nastasia Saca, Claudiu Mazilu, Maria Gheorghe and Ionela Petre
Yu et al., editors.
. Wang, X., Wang, K., Taylor, P. & Morcous G. (2014). Assessing particle packing based self consolidating concrete mixdesign method. Constr Build Mater 70, 439–452.
. Caijun, S., Zemei, W., KuiXi, L. & Linmei, W. (2015). A review on mixture design methods for self-compacting concrete. Construction and Building Materials 84, 387-398Sun, Z., Young, C. (2014). Bleeding of SCC pastes with fly ash and GGBFS replacement. J Sustain Cem Based Mater.
. Hu, J., Wang, Z., & Kim Y. (2013) Feasibility study of using fine
The present study was conducted to investigating interaction of three types of mixing water (tap water, briny groundwater and a mixture of their equal ratio), four levels of cement substitution with zeolite in the concrete mix design (0 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 %), two levels of cement content (250 and 350 kg·m−3) and seven curing ages (3, 7, 28, 56, 90, 180 and 365 days) on compressive strength of concrete. In order to statistical analysis of data - a means that was not employed in the similar studies - the study was designed as a factorial experiment based on the completely randomized design with 168 treatments and three replications (totally 504 concrete specimens). The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that neither of the two-, three- and four-way interactions of curing age with other factors were not statistically significant. This means that the gain rate of compressive strength of concrete by time was significantly similar in each possible combination of cement content, water type, and zeolite percentage. However, regarding the significant two- and three-way interactions of other studied factors, more attention should be paid to the results of these interactions than the simple effects of factors. Accordingly, based on the means comparison test (least significant difference: LSD), simultaneous use of unconventional waters with zeolite up to 20 % in the cement content 350 kg·m−3 can be recommended in terms of compressive strength of concrete.
Mohammad H. Baghban, Mahdi Kioumarsi and Sotirios Grammatikos
Cement-based materials are the most consumed materials in the construction industry. Low or high thermal conductive cement-based materials are of interest in applications such as embedded floor heating systems, building envelopes or structural elements. This paper describes prediction models for thermal conductivity of cementitious composites by considering different variables such as constituent materials, porosity and moisture content. The presented prediction models may be used for thermal conductivity based mix design of cementitious materials. Based on the desired accuracy, different solutions are proposed.
Prediction and optimization of in-service performance of road pavements during their live time is one of the main objectives of pavement research these days. For flexible pavements the key performance characteristics are fatigue and low-temperature, as well as permanent deformation behavior at elevated temperatures. The problem facing pavement designers is the need to fully characterize the complex thermo-rheological properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) over a wide temperature range on the one hand, while on the other also providing a realistic simulation of the traffic- and climate-induced stresses to which pavements are exposed over their design lives of 20 to 30 years. Where heavily trafficked roads are concerned, there is therefore an urgent need for more comprehensive test methods combined with better numerical forecast procedures to improve the economics and extend the service lives of flexible pavements under repair and maintenance programs.
This papers therefore focus on performance-based test methods on the basis of existing European standards that address effective mechanical characteristics of bituminous materials and which may be introduced into national requirements within the framework of European HMA specifications. These test methods comprise low temperature tests, i.e. the tensile stress restrained specimen test or the uniaxial tensile strength test, stiffness and fatigue tests, i.e. the four point bending beam test or the uniaxial tension compression test, as well as methods to determine permanent deformation behavior by means of dynamic triaxial tests.
These tests are used for the performance-based mix design and subsequently implemented in numerical pavement models for a reliable prediction of in-service performance, which, in combination with performance-based tests, enables a simulation of load-induced stresses and mechanogenic effects on the road structure and thus improved forecasts of the in-service performance of flexible pavements over their entire service lives.
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Rutting occurs due to accumulation of incrementally small permanent deformations from each load application and it can cause irreparable problems in pavements. On the other hand, the Marshall Mix design which is known as the main method in Iran, the lack of a simple test to determine specimen resistance to permanent deformation as the major reason for asphalt rutting is noticeable. Although today many devices are used for rutting measurement, none of them have the ability to use in wider field. In addition, prevalent methods of evaluating rutting potential are usually costly and time consuming. Mentioned parameters illustrate the necessity of developing a simple method, not only having fine precision, but also are able to predict rutting performance with low cost in the short term in laboratory. In this research, after performing the main tests on specimens, IDT test results and Marshall Parameters were used to develop a mathematical model to estimate specimen rut depth. The model is validated by using ANN and makes it possible to evaluate mixtures rutting potential while OBC is being determined in laboratory. So not only is there no need to use expensive instruments of rutting test, but also a remarkable time saving in mix design procedure is achievable.
Janis Baronins, Andrei Shishkin, Janina Setina and Viktors Mironovs
The aim of this study is to obtain high performance boron containing material with sufficient carrying capacity with increased porosity and lower density at the same time. The influence of the different concentrations of Al-W-B powder on the properties of the fresh and hardened HPC was investigated. In the concrete mix design, the allite containing White Portland cement CEM I 52,5 R, granite stone, sand, microsilica, on polycarboxylates based super plasticizer and Al-W-B powder were used. As a source of boron composite material (CM), previously grinded powder containing boron-tungsten fiber and aluminium matrix (CM Al-W-B) was used. Grinding was used for processing of CM Al-W-B powder.