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References [1] For an in-depth analysis of the huge scope and depth of misinformation, we recommend the volume Fereşte-mă, Doamne de prieteni, by author Wats Larry. [2] Beevor Anthony, Al Doilea Război Mondial, Bucureşti, Editura RAOCLASS, 2013, p. 28. [3] Ibidem, p. 30. [4] Ibidem, pp. 93-113. [5] Contra., In Mitul Blitzkrieg-ului, Lieutenant Colonel Frieser Karl-Heinz PhD demotes the concept of blitzkrieg war by pointing out that, in the operations carried out by the German army in 1940, their fulminant success did not result from Hitler's decisions, but was

. (2000). Memory Conformity: Exploring Misinformation Effects when Presented by another Person. British Journal of Psychology, 91 (2), 189-202. Xie, H., Zhang, J. (2016). Bubbles and Experience: An Experiment with a Steady Inflow of New Traders. Southern Economic Journal, 82 (4), 1349-1373.


Introduction Since Brexit and the election of Donald Trump, there has been much debate over how the spread of misinformation via social media is a danger to democracy. Some researchers have called fake news a serious threat to democracy: “The rise of fake news highlights the erosion of long-standing bulwarks against misinformation in the internet age. Concern over the problem is global” ( Lazer et al., 2018 : 1094). Yet, the same authors also say that “evaluations of the medium-to-long run impact on political behavior of exposure to fake news (for example

or problems: misinformation, disinformation, duplicate information, and, simultaneously and surprisingly, a lack of information. Under such situations, how do we expect information users to react or to deal with the information? Especially, when a pandemic happens, what can we, as information scientists, do to help? Information is related to nearly everything in modern society. The COVID-19 pandemic is considered an information crisis ( Xie et al., 2020 ) because it reflects all kinds of information problems, such as information transparency problems, false

., Fast, S.M., & Markuzon, N. (2019). Incorporating media data into a model of infectious disease transmission. Plosone, 14(2). [6] AVAAZ (2020). How Facebook can Flatten the Curve of the Coronavirus Infodemic , available at: , accessed on 24 April 2020. [7] Idem. [8] Jozwiak, R. (2020). EU Monitors See Coordinated COVID-19 Disinformation Effort by Iran, Russia, China. Radio Free Europe. Radio Liberty , available at:

of fake news: Evolution tree analysis, Computers in Human Behavior, 84, pp. 103-113. Jucaityte, I., Mašcinskiene, J., (2014). Peculiarities of social media integration into Marketing Communication, Economics and Management. ICEM 2014 , 23-25. Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H., Seifert, C., Schwarz, N., & Cook, J. (2012). Misinformation and its correction: Continued influence and successful debiasing. Psychological Science in the Public Interest , 13, 106–131. Marin, V., (2018): UE se dotează cu un sistem de alertă rapidă pentru combaterea dezinformării, Adevarul


In contemporary society, propaganda has a major impact due to the new technologies in the media (satellite television, the Internet) that ensure the rapid and instant transmission of information, thus expanding the audience. The concept of propaganda acts systematically in support of a doctrine, in order to persuade a large mass of individuals. It is generally associated with a negative action, considered to be reprehensible, and this is the consequence of the attempts that various totalitarian regimes have manifested abusively. Basically, propaganda is a conscious communication act with a political and revolutionary character representing a strategy of social influence. The element of difference is misinformation. Thus, this concept can be one of integration and consolidation of the society or, on the contrary, it can be a factor of agitation.


In the current economic context, characterized by extremely fierce competition directed at winning or retaining various consumer segments, as well as by an unprecedented technological boom, the marketers’ effort towards implementing new ways of communicating and bidding remains the only way to business success. Considered to be the most visible part of the marketing activity, integrated marketing communication tends to capture the attention of both providers and buyers especially, who need information from various sources to inform their purchasing decisions. Thus, the present paper aims to highlight the main tools which the specialists use in integrated marketing communication in their attempt to establish a permanent and efficient contact with both potential consumers and with actual consumers, as well as an analysis of secondary data sources regarding the impact false news broadcast through various media channels have on consumer perceptions.


The analysis of the recent armed conflicts reveals the fact that for conferring the necessary conditions to the headquarters and subordinated troops so that they could act strictly according to the coordinates of the plan of the strategic offensive operation, throughout the whole period it is conducted, promoting the initiative [1] and freedom of action [2] becomes imperative, at all levels, by imprinting and maintaining the surprising [3] and ingenious character of the combat manoeuvers and procedures, ensuring the envisaged rhythm of advancement and trying to suppress all the attempts of counter manoeuver of the enemy. Consequently, the existence of the correlation surprise - strategic offensive operation can not be circumvented from the content of any plan of attack, as it constitutes the most important argument for its implementation and validation. So, no matter how obvious the superiority of the forces and means of the attacker are and whatever the context, it intends to act in a surprising manner to achieve the objectives with maximum efficiency and in the shortest time possible.

(mis)information at light speed, a lot of what we think we know about brand marketing needs to be rethought through a risk management lens. “For me, brand risk is any event, action or condition with the potential to damage a brand’s value, thereby making revenue generation and a company’s market value less than it should or could have been,” Patrick Marrinan, Managing Principal of Marketing Scenario Analytica, states. In his talk with Susan Fournier and Shuba Srinivasan, Patrick illustrates the many facets of a risk that has only begun to be recognized as a