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(2), 593-610. Gallese, V., Fogassi, L., Fadiga, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (2002). Action representation and the inferior parietal lobule. Common mechanisms in perception and action: attention and performance, 19, 247-266. Gallese, V., Keysers, C., & Rizzolatti, G. (2004). A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends in cognitive sciences, 8(9), 396-403. Gallese, V. (2009). Mirror neurons, embodied simulation, and the neural basis of social identification. Psychoanalytic dialogues, 19(5), 519-536. Hickok, G. (2009). Eight problems for the mirror neuron theory of

opere d’arte. Prometeo, 103 , 52–59. Fogliani, T. M. (2003). Empatia ed emozioni . Catania, Italy: C.U.E.C.M. Gallese, V. (2001). The ‘shared manifold’ hypothesis: From mirror neurons to empathy. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8 , 33–50. Gallese, V. (2003). The roots of empathy: The shared manifold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity. Psychopathology, 36 , 171–180. Gallese, V. (2007). Dai neuroni specchio alla consonanza intenzionale. Meccanismi neurofisiologici dell’inter-soggettività. Rivista di Psicoanalisi, LIII , 197–208. Gallese, V

-25. Caggiano, V., Fogassi, L., Rizzolatti, G., Pomper, J. K., Thier, P., Giese, M.A., & Casile, A. (2011). View-based encoding of actions in mirror neurons of area f5 in macaque premotor cortex. Current Biology , 21 (2), 144-8. Casadei, A. (2018). Biologia della Letteratura. Corpo, Stile, Storia . Milano: Il Saggiatore. Cometa, M. (2018a). Perché le storie ci aiutano a vivere. La letteratura Necessaria. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore. Cometa, M. (2018b). Letteratura e darwinismo. Introduzione alla biopoetica . Roma: Carocci Editore. Freedberg, D. & Gallese, V. (2007

in martial arts. Springer. Retrieved May 2018, from: https://www.springer.com/gp/about-springer/media/research-news/all-english-research-news/reading-an-opponent-sface- gives-the-edge-in-martial-arts/10095184) Howard, R. & Croucher, M. (1983). The Way of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. New York, NY: Overlook Press. Howell, L. (2003). Martial arts and confidence. Martial Artz UK. Retrieved April 2018, from: http://www.martialartz.co.uk/articles/article001.htm. Iacoboni, M. (2009). Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annual Review of Psychology, 60

Abstract

The author stands that thinking by analogy is a natural instrument human have because of the mirror neurons in our brain. However, is it that infallible to rely on? How can we be sure that our hidden biases will not harm our reflections? Implicit Association Bias (IAB), for instance, is a powerful intruder that affects our understanding, actions, and decisions on the unconscious level by cherishing the stereotypes based on specific characteristics such as ethnicity, sex, race, and so on. To check if there is a correlation between the IAB effect and the people’s capacity to reason logically, the author had created an online-survey. The focus was on analogical reasoning and IAB tests concerning the question of gender equality in science and everyday life and age prejudices.

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through acting. Role-playing and other similar techniques also offer an opportunity for children with ASD to improve their areas of empathy and social cooperation. With regard to bio-feedback-related techniques, Friedrich et al. [3] was noted for developing the Brain-computer method, a system of game interface connected to an external device. The method targets the mirror neuron system (MNS) in order to enhance cognitive, emotional and behavioural functions through neurofeedback. An approach put forward by Solomon et al. [10] is called ‘Play and Language for Autistic Youngsters (PLAY) Project Home Consultation’. Herein, volunteers visit patients’ homes on a regular basis to engage the children in play and games, after which they discuss with parents, the issues that came up. The PLAY reduces guardians’ stress levels and improves children’s skills. A pharmacological method is that of administering sulphoraphane [9], which reduces damaging effects. As others claim [8,1,7], other dietary approaches prove efficient as well. In summation, an early intervention and the employment of a multimodal treatment approach can be of importance for enhancing the life of ASD-affected children.

erscheinende Welt. Festschrift für K. Held. (S. 751-771). Berlin: Duncker und Humblot. Lohmar, D. (2006). Mirror Neurons and the Phenomenology of Intersubjectivity. Phenomenology and Cognitive Science, 5, 5-16. Lohmar, D. (2012). Thinking and non-language thinking. In D. Zahavi (ed.), Handbook of contemporary phenomenology, (377-398). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lohmar, D. (2013). Die Funktion des Typus in Wahrnehmung und Erkennen bei Menschen und Tieren. In M. Wunsch & I. Römer (Hrsg.). Person - Anthropologische, phänomenologische und analytische Perspektiven, (S.147

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systems where he also uses mathematical and experimental techniques to explore phenomenological concepts such as ‘being-with’. Cummins explains his study of participatory joint speech, using dynamical systems in joint action, challenging our current notions of subject, agency and intentionality. In addition to the interviews, the current volume publishes four articles on varied topics relevant to the theme of the journal. In her article ‘Mirror Neurons, Husserl, and Enactivism: An Analysis of Phenomenological Compatibility’, Genevieve Hayman critically examines the

. (2004). The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience. No 27:169–192, http://www.kuleuven.be/mirrorneuronsystem/readinglist/Rizzolatti & Craighero 2004 (10.01.2019 r.).

-374. Berthoz, A. (2011). La semplessità, Torino: Codice. Berthoz, A. (2015). La vicarianza. Il nostro cervello creatore di mondi, Torino: Codice. Colman A. M. (2001), A Dictionary of Psychology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Frith, U. (2010). L'autismo, Roma: Laterza. Gallese V. & Goldman A. (1998). Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12: 493-501. Gallese V., Keysers C. & Rizzolatti G. (2004). A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8: 396-403. Gallese, V., Migone, P., & Eagle, M