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immunity with implications for a role in intestinal homeostasis. PLo One, 8 (1), e53876. Kulski, J. K., Hartmann, P. E. (2004). Changes in human milk composition during the initiation of lactation. Austr. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 59 (1) 101-114. Bode, L. (2012). Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a suga mama. Glycobiology, 22 (9), 1147-1162. Martin, M. A., Lassek, W. D., Gaulin, S. J., Evans, R.W., Woo, J. G. Geraghty, S. R., Davidson, B. S., Morrow, A. L., Kaplan, H. S., Gurven, M D. (2012). Fatty acid composition in the mature milk of Bolivian forager

). IZ PIB-INRA Ruminant Nutrition Allowances (in Polish). Ed.: National Research Institute of Animal Production, Kraków. Subnel A. P. J., Meijer R. G. M., Straalen W. M., Van Taminga S. (1994). Efficiency of milk protein production in the DVE protein evaluation system. Livest. Prod. Sci., 40: 215-224. Śliwiński B. (2007). Effect of silage from sorghum grown in monoculture on cow's yield and milk composition. Report from research project no. 2235.1/2007. Ed.: National Research Institute of Animal Production, Kraków. Śliwiński B., Brzóska F. (2006). History of sorghum


A total of 46 Swiss alpine does were examined. We analysed the composition of the milk and evaluated the body condition of the animals (BCS: 0.5 to 4.5 scale) on the same day in the last third of lactation. Goats were grouped according to their body condition for statistical calculations. We found that there was a statistically detectable relationship between body condition and milk composition of the goats. Together with the increase of BCS, the fat, protein and mineral contents in the milk increased as well. Significantly more fat, protein and mineral contents were found in the milk (6.01%;3.55%; 0,98%) in case of the well-conditioned (BCS 3.5) animals than in the thin ones (BCS 1.5-2) (4.56%, 3.11%, 0.77%) (P<5%). The concentration of milk sugar was similar between thin and better conditioned groups of animals, so the body condition did not affect these values. The importance of our study is that, the high fat and protein content of milk increases the yield of dairy products. If the animals can produce milk that has higher fat and protein content, than we can produce more dairy products that will bring more economic benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of body condition on milk yield and quality (milk composition) in dairy goats.

. Kirilov M.P., Kumarin S.V., Ilyukhina L.A., Golovin A.V., Udalova E.V. (1994). Rye in feed mixtures. Životnovodštvo, 33: 16-18. Knegsel A.T.M.van,vanden Brand H., Dijkstra J.,van Straalen W.M., Heet - kamp M.J.W., Tamminga S., Kemp B. (2007). Dietary energy source in dairy cows in early lactation: Energy partitioning and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 1467-1476. Kraszewski J., Kozłowski J. (2000). Effect of feeding ground rye in feed rations for cows on the nutritional value of milk and butter (in Polish). Rocz. Nauk. Zoot., Suppl., 6: 62-72. Kulawinek M., Kozubek

. Journal of Nutrition, 20, 433-443. Bernabucci U, Basiricò L, Morera P (2013): Impact of hot environment on colostrum and milk composition. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 59, 67-83. doi: 10.1170/T948. Costăchescu E, Hoha G, Fotea L (2011): Research regarding the lactating period of the bitch. Lucrări Ştiinţifice - Seria Zootehnie, 55, 180-183. Farrell Jr. HM, Malin EL, Brown EM, Qi PX (2006): Casein micelle structure: What can be learned from milk synthesis and structural biology? Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 11, 135-147. doi: 10.1016/j.cocis.2005

: 62. Raven L.A., Cocks B.G., Goddard M.E., Pryce J.E., Hayes B.J. (2014 b). Genetic variants in mammary development, prolactin signalling and involution pathways explain considerable variation in bovine milk production and milk composition. Genet. Sel. Evol., 46: 29. Suchocki T., Komisarek J., Szyda J. (2010). Testing candidate gene effects on milk production traits in dairy cattle under various parameterizations and modes of inheritance. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 2703-2717. Szewczuk M. (2015). Polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene (IGF1R/e10/ Msp

, 3296-3305. Yang, L., Yang, Q., Yi, M., Pang, Z.H., Xiong, B.H., 2013. Effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition and related indices in Chinese Holstein cows in northern China. J Dairy Sci. 96, 6863-6869. Zhang, R.F., Chen, H., Lei, C.Z., Fang X.T., Zhang Y.D., Hu S.R., Su L.H., 2007. Association between PCR- RFLP polymorphisms of five gene loci and milk traits in Chinese Holstein. Asian –Aust. J. Anim. Sci., vol. 20, no. 2: 166-171


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial enzyme products on milk production in Egyptian buffaloes. Twenty-one lactating buffaloes (570±15 kg BW) were divided into three groups (n=7) in a randomized block design for four months. Buffaloes were fed a total mixed ration containing 60% forage [rice straw and berseem hay (Trifolium alexandrinum)] and 40% concentrates with either no enzymes added (Control) or an addition of 40 g of Veta-Zyme Plus® (VET) or 40 g of Tomoko® (TOM ) enzyme product per day for each buffalo. Enzyme addition did not affect feed intake (P>0.05), but increased the digestibility of nutrients (P<0.05) and serum glucose concentration (P=0.011). Furthermore, the addition of VET increased milk (P=0.017) and fat corrected milk (P=0.021) yields, fat content (P=0.045), total unsaturated fatty acid (P=0.045) and total conjugated linoleic acid (P=0.031) contents in milk and decreased the content of total saturated fatty acids (P=0.046), while the addition of TOM increased milk total protein (P=0.023) and true protein (P=0.031) contents. The two enzyme products both resulted in higher concentrations of lysine (P=0.045) and total essential amino acids (P=0.036) in milk. It was concluded that addition of commercial fibrolytic enzyme products (i.e. Veta-Zyme Plus® and Tomoko®) to the diet of early lactating buffaloes enhanced nutrient digestibility and milk production and quality.


The knowledge of the existing levels and the interrelationships between various blood and milk parameters is very useful for the analysis and monitoring of homeostasis high-yielding dairy cows. The aim of the study was to evaluate these values and correlations for selected blood markers of liver function aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol) and selected milk parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), colony-forming units (CFU), fat, protein, lactose, dry matter (DM), fat-free dry matter (FDM), and milk production in cows during late lactation period. At the same time blood and milk samples were collected from 11 clinically healthy milking cows in later lactation period. The 11 selected cows were examined once a day for 3 days resulting in 33 sets of blood and milk samples for laboratory and statistical analysis. Significant positive correlations were observed between: ALT and albumin, ALT and cholesterol, GGT and glucose, albumin and cholesterol, CFU and fat, CFU and DM, SCC and protein, fat and DM, protein and FDM, lactose and FDM, GPT and FDM, albumin and protein, albumin and FDM, glucose and fat, as well as significant negative correlations between: AST and ALT, AST and GGT, AST and albumin, CFU and lactose, fat and lactose, fat and FDM, lactose and DM, DM and FDM, AST and SCC, AST and protein, AST and FDM, ALT and fat, ALT and DM, glucose and DM, cholesterol and CFU. The results obtained may be important for detecting of different biochemical pathways and helpful in estimating, predicting or determining trends, the direction of changes in liver functions and assessing the risk of alert levels for liver blood markers, when only daily results of milk parameters are available.

expression is affected by stage of lactation. J. Nutr., 138: 1019-1024. Corral J.M., Padilla J.A., Izquierdo M. (2010). Associations between milk protein genetic polymorphisms and milk production traits in Merino sheep breed. Livest. Sci., 129: 73-79. Dario C., Carnicella D., Dario M., Bufano G. (2008). Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin gene and effect on milk composition in Leccese sheep. Small Rumin. Res., 74: 270-273. Erhardt G. (1989). Evidence forathird allele at the β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) locus of sheep milk and its occurrence in different breeds. Anim. Genet