Actual scientific approaches related to critical infrastructure reveal its importance within many of the society’s essential services that are necessary for day-to-day people’s life. Besides other critical infrastructure systems, the emerging development of the space system results in the embedment of it within the critical space infrastructure concept that is based on its description related to the importance of the services provided to population, public or governing institutions, and industry. This paper intends to present the manner in which the space system services influence population’s life and to emphasize the importance of the space infrastructure related to the process of planning and conducting military operations. The reliability and well functioning of the space system from the perspective as a critical infrastructure proves its paramount importance related to essential services provided to the population that results into social well-being. Nowadays, the majority of military operations depend on the development of space infrastructure and its reliability. Moreover, the military space operations are based on satellite control system architectures as well as the interconnected systems on surface and underground systems. From this side, the protection of critical space infrastructure and its resilience level should have a paramount value for all stakeholders that are using the space system services.
If member States decide to circumvent their international legal obligations by acting through a military operation led by an international organisation, the institutional veil of which provides a shield against their responsibility for possible wrong-doings, an accountability gap can be identified. The contribution explores one of the possibilities for addressing this gap, the prohibition of circumvention, as enshrined in Art. 61 DARIO. The provision stipulates the possibility to hold the troop contributing States accountable. However, arguably the problems with international organization’s accountability gap cannot be solved in most cases by holding the States responsible over the actions of the MMO. Problematic appears such solution against the necessity to satisfy the thresholds of intent to circumvent and causing the organization to act in certain way, as required by the principle enshrined in the Article 61 DARIO.
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This article intends to shed light on the political and security developments in Yemen that ultimately resulted in the Saudi-led military operation in this country. It discusses the political background behind the Yemeni revolution of 2011, its positive outcome in the shape of the results of the National Dialogue Conference and the reasons for the collapse of the efforts to stabilize Yemen.
The widening of the spectrum, the diversity of forms of manifestation of hybrid threats, the influence of economic, political, diplomatic, informational and psychological aspects, now occupy, more than ever, a very important place in the architecture of military operations, but also the fact that the evolution of technology in the field of communications, informatics and cyber defense led to an exponential increase in the power of information. The timely and pertinent threat analysis of the hybrid warfare allows military decision-makers to identify, through an elaborate and pragmatic approach, the best solutions for preparing the armed forces for military response operations
Nowadays, in addition to the already known challenges, the hybrid threats require new responses, which had a timely appearance (adapting the existing military capabilities, the establishment of new military structures, at division and brigade level, their training etc.) and which involve an unconditional cooperation between NATO Member States and between them and their partners. From the perspective of the military response, creating multinational military structures based on different national contingents raises a number of questions on how they succeed to act coherently, in a coordinated and integrated manner. In this respect, the role of interoperability in general, and of cultural interoperability at the level of NATO military structures, in particular, has significantly increased, becoming a necessity for the development of multinational military operations as a joint response to the hybrid threats.
The analysis of geographical spaces and the way in which physical-geographic elements influence the planning and conduct of military operations is related to military geography as a component of military science. From the military point of view, the parameters of the relief are of particular importance. In this respect, in the Bârgău Mountains, the mountainous landforms, with slopes leading to the lack of viability, then the high ridges and dominant points that offer wide views, the regime of the currents, the rain, the harshness of the climate in different seasons, the high temperature variations and atmospheric pressure, are elements that oppose or which, on the contrary, can be used as a real weapon against the enemy
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