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1 Introduction In 2006, former president Felipe Calderon began the “war against drugs” in Mexico, a starting point for a considerable increase in the levels of violence in the country ( Rios Contreras, 2014 ; Ybañez Zepeda and Alarcon, 2014 ). The sharp rise in several types of crime, such as homicides, extortion, and kidnapping, during this war provides a valuable opportunity to enrich the understanding about the link between violence and migration, since interest on forced migration at the international level began to rise recently ( Fitzgerald, 2015 ; Engel

1 Introduction Economic research on labor migration in the developing world has traditionally focused on the role played by the remittances of overseas migrant labor in the sending country’s economy (for a survey of the empirical literature on remittances, see Adams (2011) ). In the last decade, more attention has been paid to migration for work and its effects on the socioeconomic outcomes of sending households, thanks in large part to the increased availability of household survey data from developing countries. This study contributes to this particular strain

1 Introduction The disruption of family life is one of the important legacies of South Africa’s colonial and apartheid history. The marginalization of Africans in “homelands,” where there were few employment opportunities, forced Africans to migrate to “White” urban areas to find employment, but a range of restrictions prevented family migration or permanent settlement at the urban destination. The migrant labor system meant that it was mainly men who worked in urban areas or on the mines, while the rural homelands became places for “surplus” people whose labor

that migrant success in the receiving country considerably depends on a settlement decision ( Damm, 2009 ; Edin et al., 2004 ; Chiswick and Miller, 2005 ). The economic literature on migrants’ location choices points to several important factors determining migration destinations. Among them, the labor market characteristics of the receiving regions and co-ethnics concentration have been extensively explored. Regional economic characteristics represent opportunities in the labor market, while concentration of co-ethnics represents available migrant networks

Migration: The human face of globalisation. Paríž: OECD, 2009. 174 p. KOTVANOVÁ, A.- SZÉP, A. Migrácia a Rómovia. Historické, sociálne a politické súvislosti. Bratislava: Slovenský inštitút medzinárodných štúdií, 2002. 100 p. MIHÁLY, G. - DIVINSKÝ, B. Nové trendy a prognóza pracovnej migrácie v Slovenskej republike do roku 2020 s výhľadom do roku 2050. Bratislava: TREXIMA, 2011. 101 p. ŠIŠKOVÁ, T. Menšiny a migranti v Českej republice. Praha: Portál, 2001. 188 p. TOUŠEK, V.- KUNC. J.- VYSTOUPIL. J. Ekonomická a sociální geografie. Plzeň: Aleš Čeněk, 2008. 411 p. http

References Aalen, O.O. 1975. Statistical Inference for a Family of Counting Processes . PhD thesis. Berkeley: University of California. Aalen, O.O., Ø. Borgan, and H.K. Gjessing. 2008. Survival and Event History Analysis. A Process Point of View . New York: Springer. Doi: . Abel, G.J. 2010. “Estimation of International Migration Flow Tables in Europe.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 173(4): 797–825. Doi: . Abel, G.J. 2013. “Estimating Global Migration

References Bleahu, Ana. 2004. Romanian migration to Spain. Motivations, networks and strategies. Public Policy Centre, accessed February 28, 2015, Bradatan, Cristina E., and Dumitru Sandu. 2012. “Before Crisis: Gender and Economic Outcomes of the Two Largest Immigrant Communities in Spain: Gender and Economic Outcomes.” International Migration Review 46(1): 221-243. Castles, Stephen. 2007. ”The Factors that Make and Unmake Migration Policies.” In Rethinking Migration. New Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, edited by

and migration decisions, finding that with existing international wage differentials for low-skilled labor in higher-income Russia, individuals and families in migrant-sending Tajikistan may forgo professional or continued education. Instead, they opt to migrate to high-paying unskilled jobs in Russia, especially when those jobs are paying multiples of their home pay, even for skilled migrants taking unskilled host-country jobs. Such an income gap may lead to the rejection of professional education and training by individuals in the migrants’ origin country in

Bibliography Buchowski M., Kołbon I., Współcześni wędrowcy: od cudzoziemca do obywatela , “Czas Kultury” 2008, No. 4. Castels S., Miller M.J., Migracje we współczesnym świecie , Warszawa 2011. Clark M., Współczesne Włochy 1871-2006 , Warszawa 2009. Del Boca D., Venturini A., Italian Migration , “IZA Discussion Paper” 2003, No. 938. Duszczyk M., Wyzwania polskiej polityki migracyjnej a doświadczenia międzynarodowe , [in:] Polityka migracyjna jako instrument promocji zatrudnienia i ograniczania bezrobocia , edit. P. Kaczmarczyk, M. Okólski, Warszawa 2008

References Brubaker, Rogers. 1998. “Migrations of Ethnic Unmixing in the New Europe.” International Migration Review 32 (4): 1047-1065. Burawoy, Michael. 2016. “The Promise of Sociology: Global Challenges for National Disciplines.” Sociology 50 (5): 949–959. Castles, Stephen and Mark J. Miller. 1993. The age of migration . New York: The Guilford Press. Croitoru, Alin. 2013. “An insight into the nature of the relationship between migration and entrepreneurship.” Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology and Sociology , 4 (1): 105–125. Czaika, Mathias