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Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.

Policy , 19 (2), pp. 103–120. FRIEDMAN, A. (2014), Planning Small and Mid-Sized Towns: Designing and Retrofitting for Sustainability , New York: Routledge. GEHL, J. (2010), Cities for People , Washington: Island Press. GLASER, M., VAN ‘T HOFF, M., KARSSENBERG, H., LAVEN, J. and VAN TEEFFELEN, J. (2012), The City at Eye Level: Lessons for Street Plinths , Delft: Eburon. HACKETT, P. and FOXALL, G. (1994), ‘A factor analytic study of consumers’ location specific values: a traditional high street and a modern shopping mall’, Journal of Marketing Management , 10 (1

( Mittelstädte ) = municipalities with 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants and medium central functions; see https://www.bbr.bund.de/BBSR/DE/Raumbeobachtung/Raumabgrenzungen/deutschland/gemeinden/StadtGemeindetyp/StadtGemeindetyp_node.html (23.05.2019). However, small and mid-sized towns have been losing population for more than a decade ( BBSR 2012 : 12). While 37% (221) of all mid-sized towns and 52% (1.103) of all small towns experienced demographic decline between 2005 and 2015, only 14% (88) of the mid-sized towns and 13% (274) of the small towns were characterised by stable

respondents and residents of mid-size towns, but both effects are only marginally significant. Donation willingness was found to differ by self-declared religiosity as well. Particularly, declared atheists were substantially more likely to express a higher certainty of donation willingness than religious individuals. 3.2 Barriers to Registering as Organ Donors Consistent with previous studies, a substantial gap was observed between the claimed post-mortem organ donation willingness and joining the register. Less than 4% of respondents reported being registered organ donors

local newsrooms are shut down, the coverage of local issues related to the municipality declines, and content becomes less local and more weakly connected to local society ( Hellekant Rowe & Karlsson, 2017 ). In Strömsund, the number of articles devoted to the local municipality decreased from 70‒80/month to about 30/month when the coverage was moved to the main office 100 km away. The current coverage also contains less debate and is less critical ( Pålsson, 2017 ). Even in mid-size towns where the local newspapers are still present, the content has been changing. In