Andrzej Nowak, Maciej J. Nowak and Krystyna Cybulska
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Attila Kántor, Ján Mareček, Eva Ivanišová, Margarita Terentjeva and Miroslava Kačániová
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Michał Kobiałka, Anna Michalik, Marcin Walczak, Łukasz Junkiert and Teresa Szklarzewicz
Cardinium sp. symbiont in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Tissue and Cell 38 (4): 257–261.
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ACOSTA-MARTINEZ, V, MIKHA, MM & VIGIL, MF 2007, ‘Microbial communities and enzyme activities in soils under alternative crop rotations compared to wheat-fallow for the Central Great Plains’, Applied Soil Ecology , vol. 37, pp. 41-52.
BREZA-BORUTA, B & PALUSZAK, Z 2006, ‘Occurrence of amylolytic microorganisms in soil depending on the type of cultivation’, Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology , vol. 6, pp. 175-180.
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Ewa Stańczyk-Mazanek, Teresa Nalewajek and Magdalena Zabochnicka
Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Soils Fertilized with Sewage Sludge
One of the methods of sewage sludge disposal, which is based on its fertilizing properties, is its use in nature, e.g. in farming (if all the permissible standards are met). However, the sludge used for soil fertilization might also contain heavy metals, pathogenic microorganisms, thus causing contamination in soil foundation and deterioration of the conditions for development of indigenous organisms. Particular threat is posed by the existence of drug-resistant microorganisms in sewage sludge. This problem has not been researched in detail yet.
The authors of the present study aimed to determine qualitative changes in drug-resistant microorganisms in sandy soil fertilized with selected sewage sludge. Sewage sludge after different types of drying process (natural and solar) was added to the degraded sandy soil. The effect of the methods of sewage sludge drying on concentration of drug-resistant microorganisms in soil fertilized with the sludge was analysed.
The study demonstrated that sewage sludge dried naturally in drying beds pose threat to soil environment and, potentially, to people and animals which have contact with fertilized soils. In sandy soils fertilized with these types of sewage sludge, pathogenic forms which exhibit resistance to first-line antibiotics can be found.
Artur Burmańczuk, Cezary Kowalski, Zbigniew Roliński, Rafał Zań and Dorota Krasucka
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the current profile of bacteria responsible for the infection of the mammary gland and to assess their sensitivity to selected β-lactam antibiotics.
Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 119 (n = 119) dairy cows of the Polish Black-White breed aged 4 to 10 years with inflammation of the mammary gland. The cows came from different farms: smallholder farms and large dairy cattle farms in the Lublin and Bialystok Provinces. Before the process of collection of milk samples, the teats were cleaned and immersed in a liquid disinfectant. The first streams were collected into containers which were subsequently utilised. Afterwards, 2-4 mL of milk or secretions was milked into sterile disposable tubes. The milk samples were collected into plastic bottles and kept in a cooler with ice until transportation to the laboratory. Tests of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics were performed by disc diffusion.
Results: Contagious and environmental bacteria were isolated from all dairy barns. In the group of contagious bacteria, the presence of typical pathogens responsible for the mammary gland infections, i.e. Staph. aureus, Str. agalactiae, and C. bovis, was detected. A relatively broad group of the isolates was formed by environmental bacteria responsible for inflammation of the mammary gland: Str. dysgalactiae, Str. uberis, Staph. chromogenes, Staph. hyicus, Staph. warneri, and E. coli. Among the environmental organisms, streptococci constituted the largest percentage (23%), followed by staphylococci (13.2%), and E. coli (8.8%). The largest group of infectious pathogens comprised Str. agalactiae (29.6%) and Staph. aureus (20.8%).
Conclusion: Our investigation of the current profile of the isolates responsible for mastitis in the Lublin and Bialystok Provinces showed that environmental bacteria are the major cause of the disease. In view of the substantially varying degrees of sensitivity of the microorganisms isolated from cases of mastitis to β-lactam antibiotics, each therapeutic treatment should be preceded by susceptibility testing.
Monika Tomkiel, Małgorzata Baćmaga, Jadwiga Wyszkowska, Jan Kucharski and Agata Borowik
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In the article, changes in the properties of oils during operation were characterized. The main reason for this is the continuous aging process of the used oil caused by the interaction of oxygen contained in the air, which reacts relatively easily with hydrocarbons and the oxidation process is accelerated just by high temperature. Then the problem of microorganisms occurring in petroleum products and their effect on the properties of oils and the operation of the internal combustion engine was presented. The next part of the article presents effective microorganisms, i.e. what they are and how they work, in particular, their composition and appropriate development conditions. In addition, some of their specific applications were briefly described. In the next part of the article, the research methodology, applied oil samples with additives of effective microorganisms, both for fresh oil and used oil were described. In addition, the measuring test stand with instrumentation and measuring device was shown. The main part of the article contains the characteristics of dynamic viscosity as a function of temperature for fresh oil and used oil compared with oils with the addition of microorganisms in liquid form and ceramic tubes. The developed graphs enabled analysis of the effect of the addition of microorganisms on oil viscosity as ecological products.
Magdalena Polak-Berecka, Adam Waśko and Daniel Koston
Comparison of different methods for detection of antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus against some food spoilage microorganisms
Different methods were used to detect antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus against some food spoilage microorganisms. This study demonstrates that in comparison with culture supernatant and sonificated cells of L. rhamnosus the strongest antimicrobial activity was observed when live test culture was used. It can be suggested that the best results were seen with two methods: the dual culture overlay assay and the agar slab method. From comparison between methodologies it can be concluded that the agar slab technique gives the most reliable and reproducible results.
Due to low effectiveness or high costs of using chemical agents in the protection of common mushrooms, producers are forced to look for alternative methods of protection. One such method is the use of preparations containing beneficial microorganisms. A statistical evaluation of this mushroom protection method and determination of the number of infected fruiting bodies is presented in this paper