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Introduction This paper considers a recently developed conceptual model of managerial capability for innovation in the microfirm context ( Kearney et al., 2014 ) and applies it to a pilot study in the tourism sector in Ireland. Microfirms are those organisations that employ less than 10 people ( EU, 2010 ), while managerial capability may be defined as the human capability underpinning the competitiveness of the firm ( Barney, 1991 ). This research is focused by the dynamic capabilities view of the firm ( Teece et al., 1997 ; Winter, 2003 ) assuming capabilities

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.

dominance of micro-firms in the overall structure of firms, in-depth studies of such firms are rare and limited to general statistical data on the city, regional or national level (e.g. Namyślak 2013 ; Stryjakiewicz et al. 2014 ) or general issues linked with location factors ( Tomczak, Stachowiak 2015 ). In turn, research on artistic entrepreneurship in other countries has usually been conducted at most on a metropolitan level, rarely including intraurban patterns. If so, it most often pertained to a selected discipline, a particular creative sector branch such as

Abstract

This paper explores the determinants of access to finance for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the context of three Central European countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, and Hungary. The data set of the research is obtained from the BEEPS survey, which is conducted by the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. This paper empirically analyses firms not only from the SMEs point of view, but also shows results for micro, small and medium enterprises separately. Additionally, we have analysed the determinants of access to finance for SMEs at each country level for an in-depth understanding of country-level variations in SME financing. The results indicate that micro firms and firms owned and operated by women are experiencing a shortage of credits from banks. On the other hand, we found a positive relationship between the pledge of collateral and access to finance. With respect to the medium firms, we found evidence that innovative firms have a larger amount of credit from banks. The empirical results also suggest that the loan size increases as the interest rates increase in particular for SMEs on the whole and for micro-firms, although the interest rate is in a negative relationship with the loan size in Czech Republic.

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consider the embedded nature of managerial capability development in the micro-firm context, where key resources such as business ties, family interaction and market proximity are leveraged by a context-specific managerial capability underpinned by people relationships, strategic thinking, operational problem solving and leadership. As noted elsewhere, the recent economic downturn has highlighted the importance of indigenous Irish businesses and industry in economic renewal and recovery. However, it is well established that the innovation policy mechanisms designed to

: Tourism’s place in rural innovation. Tourism Planning & Development, 9(4), 383-396. DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2012.726254. [5] Brouder, P. (2013). Embedding Arctic tourism innovation in ‘creative outposts’. In Lemelin, R. H., Maher, P. & Liggett, D. (eds.) From talk to action: How tourism is changing the Polar regions (pp. 183-198). Thunder Bay, ON: Centre for Northern Studies Press. [6] Brouder, P. & Eriksson, R. (2013). Staying power: What influences micro-firm survival in tourism? Tourism Geographies, 15(1), 124-143. DOI: 10.1080/14616688.2011.647326. [7] Burton, R. J. F

(4), 7. Padgett, D. K. (2008). Qualitative methods in social work research. Thousand Oaks, California, USA: SAGE. Patino, C. M., & Ferreira, J. C. (2018). Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: definitions and why they matter. Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology , 44 (2), 84-84. Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative researcher and evaluation methods: Integrating theory and practice , (4th ed.). London: SAGE. Phillipson, J., Bennett, K., Lowe, P., & Raley, M. (2004). Adaptive responses and asset strategies: The experience of rural micro-firms and foot

Development, Vol. 9(4), pp. 383-396. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2012.726254 Brouder, P., 2014: Evolutionary economic geography - a new path for tourism studies? In: Tourism Geographies, Vol. 16(1), pp. 2-7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2013.864323 Brouder, P. and Eriksson, R.H., 2013a: Staying power: what influences micro-firm survival in tourism? In: Tourism Geographies, Vol. 15(1), pp. 125-144. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2011.647326 Brouder, P. and Eriksson, R.H., 2013b: Tourism evolution: on the synergies of tourism studies and

–4 employees, and so forth. Examining the percentage change in the hazard rate ( Cleves et al. , 2008 ), when the micro-firm size dummy, such as that for firms with 5–9 employees, turns from a value of ‘0’ (from a small firm 10–49 employees) to ‘1’ (a micro firm with 5–9 employees) which is calculated as [ exp(βi) – 1 ], we find that the percentage increase in the hazard is much higher for firms founded before 1980, equal to 83% as per [ exp (0.6038)-1], in comparison with the analogous percentages for firms founded 1980–1989 of 56%, 1990–1999 of 74%, 2000–2005 of 59%, and

competitive action (at the action level) of (micro)firms. As in other strategic management areas, competitive dynamics studies also seek answers to some basic questions. Some of these are listed below [ Chen and Miller, 2012 , p. 4]: Why do the firms try to compete in particular ways? How do the firms interact while they are competing? How does the competitive behavior of firms influence organizational performance? Studies regarding competitive dynamics differ from traditional approaches in one particular aspect, and this aspect makes competitive dynamics almost unique in