Joanna Grzechulska-Damszel, Agata Markowska-Szczupak and Antoni W. Morawski
Selenium is one of the trace elements playing a crucial role in a proper function of living organisms. Selenium intake varies, largely based on the selenium content of food. The daily Se intake recommended for adults amounts to 55 μg per day. The mean level of selenium in the population varies considerably between countries. Recent studies on the selenium dietary intakes in Poland showed that it is not sufficient to meet the daily requirement for this microelement so it is strongly recommended to employ selenium supplementation. The commercial product SEL-BRCA1® being a selenium diet supplement was subjected to chemical and microbial analysis to determine its stability in storage time and conditions. Basing on the obtained results it can be stated that the stability of studied supplement, stored in the closed bottles, can be confirmed for the period of time up to 45 months after the production date and it is not recommended to store opened bottles for the period of time longer than 12 months. The studied supplement showed a very high microbial stability what underscores its usefulness as human medicines.
Joanna Grzechulska-Damszel, Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Grzegorz Zolnierkiewicz, Janusz Typek, Nikos Guskos and Antoni W. Morawski
The iron diet supplements: AproFER 1000 and AproTHEM were subjected to various chemical, microbial and magnetic analysis. The microbial analysis revealed no presence of pathogenic bacteria in the studied products. No significant changes in iron content or forms (bivalent/trivalent) were observed in EPR analysis of supplements stored at different conditions for a long period of time. The chemical and magnetic analysis showed that both AproFER 1000 and AproTHEM contain a high concentration of bivalent iron so they can be used as an iron diet supplements.
The manufacture of dairy products is an important sector of the food industry. From milking to processing, a number of hygiene rules must be strictly followed. During processing, dairy products can be contaminated with different microorganisms, causing spoilage, infectious diseases, and alterations in the sensory characteristics. There are strict requirements for the quality assurance of milk products. In spite of this, there occur infections linked to milk and dairy product consumption. The analysis of the microbiological quality of these products is a health concern, and it also has an economic impact. The increase and development of the global market of processing technologies require rapid monitoring and controlling systems for food products. In our study, we investigated the microbiological quality of some fresh dairy products with the Soleris® test system. For instrument setting, calibration curves were realized with test bacterial strains. With known initial microbial load of the samples, the microbial growth versus time was measured by the above-mentioned system. The occurrence of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in ten dairy products. Results obtained by the Soleris system showed that the system is efficient for this purpose. Calibration curves with high correlation coefficients permitted the quantitative determination of the aimed bacteria in the dairy product samples.
Kalina Sikorska-Zimny, Karolina Wójcicka, Anita Rochmińska, Krzysztof P. Rutkowski, Eligia M. Szewczyk and Paweł Lisiecki
Parsley leaves (Petroselinum crispum) have long been known for their organoleptic properties. They are widely used in cuisine all over the world in fresh and dried form and also as pharmaceutical raw material. The presented work assessed if the storage of parsley leaves (as whole leaves or leave pieces) and packaging with PE or Xtend® foils influence the content of selected chemical compounds and the microbiological quality of the product. For this purpose, the leaves were dried, packaged and analyzed after 3 weeks’ storage under room temperature. Neither the degree of fragmentation nor the type of packaging foil affected the content of vit. C and total sugars. Higher content of reducing sugars was obtained in the samples packed in PE foil. Number of detected bacteria did not exceed the safety border. Less bacterial colonies were detected in the material packed as fragmented in the PE foil. No fungal colonies were detected in the leaves packed in the Xtend® foil.
Franciszek Pistelok, Alina Pohl, Tomasz Stuczyński and Bogusław Wiera
Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule playing a role of universal energy carrier used in cell metabolism. Since ATP is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, this coenzyme can be used to determine a hygiene state. During last decade there has been a significant growth of practical applications of ATP measurements. ATP tests are commonly used for an assessment of hygienic conditions in food industry, residential buildings and hotels. In comparison with traditional and time-consuming laborious microbial analysis the measurement of ATP provides a quick indicative on-site data, characterizing microbial and organic contamination to support decision-making with regards to adequate corrective and preventive actions. This paper demonstrates applications of ATP in practice and, particularly, in water treatment technology and wastewater processing. The review highlights opportunities for using the test for the optimization of water treatment facilities and pipe networks functioning in order to assess wastewater toxicity and wastewater treatment process efficiency. Other areas of application are also addressed. The review of literature indicates that ATP used in different areas of industry can be considered as a diagnostic method - complement the classical methods - useful for identification of hygiene risks as well as a tool for a real-time management of health and environmental risks.
Najum us Saqib, Asim Yaqub, Gomal Amin, Imran Khan, Faridullah, Huma Ajab, Iftikhar Zeb and Didar Ahmad
The northern area of Pakistan, Gilgit Baltistan (GB), has huge tourist potential due to its exotic mountain beauty. According to the GB Tourism Department, a large number of tourists (around 200651) visit GB every year from across the country. Due to a large influx of tourists in the area both positive and negative impacts have been felt especially on the environment and on the local communities. The environmental impacts of tourism were investigated in this research in two districts of GB. Three villages were selected from each of the districts of Hunza and Diamer as the basis of this research. This study was based on the perceptions and attitudes of the respondents. The total number of questionnaires completed was 340 filled from different respondent categories. Results showed that deforestation, loss of biodiversity, generation of solid waste, water, air and noise pollution, damage cultural and heritage sites and are the main environmental issues caused by tourism activities in the villages in these districts. About 42% of respondents said that deforestation and loss of biodiversity were high in the Diamer district while in Hunza 39% of respondents said that solid waste generation was high. Similarly, 21% respondents in Hunza and 14% respondents in Diamer agreed that water pollution is caused by tourism activities. Microbial analysis of water confirmed the presence of Salmonella typhi, E. coli and Enterobacter sp. There were positive impacts of tourism with results revealing that 87% of villagers and 98% of businessmen responded that tourism had provided them with jobs and business during the peak tourism season. Hotels and restaurants are the main source of jobs in GB mainly as porters and guides. According to the data collected dry fruits, medicinal herbs, gemstones and handicrafts provided considerable attractions for tourists. It is recommended that a combined effort be made by the local communities, tourism departments and other Govt. Agencies to ensure the cleanliness of tourist attractions.
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Alessandro Agazzi, Erica Tirloni, Simone Stella, Serena Maroccolo, Barbara Ripamonti, Carla Bersani, Jessica Michela Caputo, Vittorio Dell’Orto, Nicola Rota and Giovanni Savoini
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