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Sci 1993; 52 (12): 1023-9. 5.Grizenko N, Bhat M, Schwartz G, Ter-Stepanian M,Joober R.Efficacyofmethylphenidate in childrenwithat ten - tion-deficithyperactivitydisorder and learningdisabilities: a randomizedcrossover trial. J PsychiatryNeurosci. 2006; 31(1): 46-51. 6. Kratochvil CJ, Heiligenstein JH, Dittmann R, Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Wernicke J, Newcorn JH, Casat C, Milton D, Michelson D. Atomoxetine and methylphenidate treatment in children with ADHD: a prospective, randomized, open-label trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002; 41(7): 776-84. 7. Yildiz

REFERENCES 1. Dubljević V, Venero C, Knafo S. What is cognitive enhancement? In: Knafo S, Venero C, editors. Cognitive Enhancement: Pharmacologic, Environmental and Genetic Factors. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.; 2015. p. 1-9. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-417042-1.00001-2 2. Battleday RM, Brem A-K. Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2015;25:1865-81. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.07.028 3. Repantis D, Schlattmann P, Laisney O, Heuser I. Modafinil and methylphenidate for


Aim: The aim of the study was 1) to report the case of a 15-year-old boy who developed kleptomania symptoms during methylphenidate treatment and 2) to review the available therapeutic options for kleptomania based on a literature search of Medline and Google Scholar databases (2000–2018).

Case report: For the past seven years a 15-year-old boy had participated in counselling at a psychological counselling centre because of school problems and upbringing difficulties, and had a five-year history of psychiatric treatment for ADHD. He was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry because of recurrent stealing episodes that occurred during methylphenidate treatment. During the hospitalization, the patient did not observe the therapeutic contract – he stole items from other patients. Pharmacotheraputic and psychotherapeutic treatment resulted in a partial improvement in impulsive behaviour. At discharge, he spoke critically of his previous conduct and expressed readiness to continue treatment in an outpatient setting.


  1. Kleptomania has a very negative impact on a patient's overall well-being.
  2. In the reported case, kleptomania developed during methylphenidate treatment.
  3. Kleptomania should always be taken into account as a possible cause of stealing during a psychiatric examination, to avoid stigmatization of patients as criminals.
  4. Pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy focused on the development of strategies, which can help the patient to control the urge to steal, are important components of kleptomania treatment.

REFERENCES Benotsch, E. G., Jeffers, A. J., Snipes, D. J., Martin, A. M., & Koester, S. (2013). The five factor model of personality and the non-medical use of prescription drugs: Associations in a young adult sample. Personality and Individual Differences , 55 (7), 852–855. Bogle, K. E., & Smith, B. H. (2009). Illicit methylphenidate use: A review of prevalence, availability, pharmacology, and consequences. Current Drug Abuse Reviews , 2 (2), 157–176. Cakic, V. (2009). Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: Ethical and pragmatic considerations in the era of


Attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that impairs academic, social and occupational functioning in children, adolescents and adults. It is characterized by excessive activity, restlessness, and nervousness. The disease occurs in general at children before the age of 7 and usually is not easy to be detected, due to various symptoms. When the diagnosis is established the physician can prescribe two types of drugs, stimulants: amphetamine, dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine, methylphenidate, and non-stimulants such as: guanfacine, atomoxetine, and clonidine. So what can be done for a person who has ADHD, and wants to be an elite athlete? Due to the rules established by the World Anti-Doping Agency the stimulant drugs are prohibited in competition and if traces of a prohibited substance are detected in the sample of blood of the athlete his access to competition can be blocked from 2-4 years, from that date of the incident. Fortunately for some athletes the disease was acute in childhood but as they grew up the symptoms were reminiscent and they could concentrate at the sporting task that was supposed to be achieved. What about those athletes that still have the symptoms? Well, they can be treated with the non-stimulant drugs, but their doctor must monthly verify if the list of prohibited drugs has been changed. In conclusion we can say that ADHD can be an impediment, but with the help of parents, teachers, and physicians the athlete can achieve very good performances.

Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 2017; 61 (4): 320-326. 31. Wainsten G, Rojas-Líbano D, Crossley NA, Carrasco X, Aboitiz F, Ossandón T. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Scientific Reports 2017;7 (1): 8228. 32. Türkbay T, Erdem Ü, Kara K. Effects of methylphenidate on pupil size in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur Psychiatry 2012; 27 (1) P-347. 33. Hysek CM., Simmpler LD, Schillinger N, Meyer N, Schmid Y, Donzelli M, Grouzmann E, Liechti ME. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

, Chen Y, Sreeramanan S, Sasidharan S. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Euphorbia hirta L. methanol extract in rats. Bio Res Int 2013; 182064. doi: 10.1155/2013/182064 18. Raza M, Al-Shabanah OA, El-Hadiya TM, Al- Majed AA. Effect of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on haematological and biochemical parameters in plasma, liver and kidney of Swiss albino mice. Sci Pharm 2002; 70:135-145. 19. Teo S, Stirling D, Thomas S, Hoberman A, Kiorpes A, Khetani V. A 90-day oral gavage toxicity study of d-methylphenidate and d,l-methylphenidate in Sprague

REFERENCES 1. Lubar J, White N, Swartwood M, Swartwood J. Methylphenidate effects on global and complex measures of EEG. Paediat Neurol 1999; 21: 633–7. 2. Shaw J. An introduction to the coherence function and its use in the EEG signal analysis. J Med Eng Technol 1981; 5: 279–88. 3. Fein G, Raz J, Brown F, Merrin E. Common reference coherence data are confounded by power and phase effects. EEG Clin Neurophysiol 1988; 69: 581–4. 4. Stein A., Sarnthein J. Different frequencies for different scales of cortical integration: from local gamma to long range alpha

. 15. Steinhausen H.C.: The heterogeneity of causes and courses of attention-deficit ⁄hyperactivity disorder, Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 120, 392-399, 2009. 16. Stahl S.M.: Leki stabilizujące nastroj, Asteria, Gdańsk, 17, 25-40, 2010. 17. Takon I.: Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Annals of General Psychiatry 10 (2011), 18. Xu X. et al.: Association study between a polymorphism at the 3’-untranslated region of CLOCK gene and

. Association of methylphenidate-induced craving with changes in right striato-orbitofrontal metabolism in cocaine abusers: implications in addiction. Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156 (1):19-26 12. Solanto MV. Neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of stimulant drug action in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review and integration. Behav Brain Res. 1998; 94: 127-52 13. Wigal S B. Efficacy and Safety Limitations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pharmacotherapy in Children and Adults, CNS Drugs. 2009; 23 (1): 21 14. Greydanus DE, Pratt HD, Patel DR. Attention