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References Boleda MD, Julia P, Moreno A, Pares X. Role of Extrahepatic Alcohol-Dehydrogenase in Rat Ethanol-Metabolism. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;274:74-81. Caldwell J, Dring LG, Williams RT. Metabolism of [C-14]Methamphetamine in Man, Guinea-Pig and Rat. Biochem J. 1972;129:11-22. Dostalek M, Hadasova E, Hanesova M, et al. Feet of methamphetamine on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and midazolam in rats. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2005;30:195-201. Dostalek M, Jurica J, Pistovcakova J, et al. Effect of methamphetamine on cytochrome P450 activity

-Radiation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(2)260-266. Davidson C, Gow AJ, Lee TH, Ellinwood EH. Methamphetamine neurotoxicity: necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms and relevance to human abuse and treatment. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews. 2001;36(1):1-22. Escubedo E, Chipana C, Pérez-Sánchez M, Camarasa J, Pubill D. Methyllycaconitine prevents methamphetamine-induced effects in mouse striatum: involvement of alpha7 nicotinic receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315(2):658-67. Nwoha PU, Ojo GB, Ajayi SA, Ofusori DA, Oluwayinka OP, Odukoya SA, Falana BA. Garcinia kola diet

for Automobiles,” Canadian Journal of Economics , 3: pp. 386 - 406. DiNardo, John, and Thomas Lemieux. 2001. “Alcohol, Marijuana, and American Youth: The Unintended Consequences of Government Regulation,” Journal of Health Economics , 6: pp. 991 - 1010. Dobkin, Carlos, and Nancy Nicosia. 2009. “The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime,” American Economic Review , 99: pp. 324 - 349. Fernandez, Jose M., Stephan Gohmann, and Joshua C. Pinkston. 2015. Breaking Bad: Are Meth Labs Justified in Dry Counties?” Social Science Research Network , (August

References 1. Adam P, Natakankikul S, Sirithunyalug J, Aramrattana A. Physico-chemical profiles of methamphetamine tablets. CMU J. 2005; 4:65-70. 2. Kintz P, Tracqui A, Mangin P. Detection of drugs in human hair for clinical and forensic applications. Int J Leg Med. 1992; 105:1-4. 3. Kintz P. Value of hair analysis in postmortem toxicology. Forensic Sci Int. 2004; 142:127-34. 4. Sachs H. History of hair analysis. Forensic Sci Int. 1997; 84:7-16. 5. Horcharoen P, Junkuy A, Sribanditmongkol P. Method validation of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair analysis

, Czech Republic. P.O73 19. Karačić V, Skender Lj. Hair testing for drugs of abuse. Coll Antropol 2003;27:263-9. doi: 613.83:616.594.1-074 20. Han E, Park Y, Yang W, Lee J, Lee S, Kim E, Lim M, Chung H. The study of metabolite-to-parent drug ratios of methamphetamine and methylenedioxymethamphetamine in hair. Forensic Sci Int 2006;161:124-9. doi: 10.1016/j. forsciint.2006.03.031 21. Karačić V, Skender Lj, Brčić I, Bagarić A. Hair testing for drugs of abuse: A two-year experience. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2002;53:213-20. PMID: 12557474 22. Martins LF, Yegles M, Thieme D


Background: Inhalants are abused by adolescents worldwide, but genetic markers of inhalant use or dependence are poorly understood.

Objective: We assessed the frequency and association of a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) in inhalant-dependent (ID) subjects and inhalant users (IU).

Methods: Demographic and diagnostic data were collected by interviewing 456 Thai-speaking methamphetamine (MA) users by using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). COMT Val158Met (rs4680) genotyping was acquired by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Individuals with ID or IU were compared with non-ID or non-IU by using a χ2 test. After that, factors associated with ID or IU were analyzed by logistic regression. Blood samples from 217 healthy blood donors were used as controls for ID and IU in the allele frequency comparison. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Expectations (HWEE) was also tested.

Results: Out of 456 MA users, deviation from HWEE was observed in IU but not in ID, non-ID or from the total sample. The “Met” allele was significantly associated with ID (p = 0.02) and IU (p = 0.002) among MA users, but not in allele frequency comparisons when compared to the healthy control group (p > 0.1). With respect to logistic regression analysis, homo or heterozygosity for the “Met” allele, male sex, younger age, lower level of education, a major depressive episode (MDE), and alcohol dependence were associated with ID. Analyses of IU vs. non-IU yielded the same results except for age and MDE. In addition, individuals with MA-induced paranoia (MIP) were more likely to have used inhalants at least once in their lifetime compared to those without.

Conclusion: COMT 158Met, male sex, younger age, lower level of education, MDE, MIP, and alcohol dependence increased risk for inhalant use and/or dependence.

References 1. Junkuy A, Pengwong M, Aramrattana A, Celentano D, Sribanditmongkol P. Validation and application of hair analysis for the detection of methamphetamine in young Thai adults. Asian Biomed. 2014; 8:463-73. 2. Willard N, Srirojn B, Thomson N, Aramrattana A, Sherman S, Galai N, et al. Coalition formation to address structural determinants of methamphetamine use in Thailand. Health promotion international. 2014. Feb 2 e-pub ahead of print doi: 10.1093/heapro/dau001. 3. Marsh A, Carruthers ME, Desouza N, Evans MB. An investigation of the effect of washing


The use of illicit drugs has dramatically increased during the past years. Consequently, the number of presentations at the emergency departments due to the adverse effects of the illicit drugs has also increased. This review discusses the cardiovascular effects of cocaine, opiates and opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methamphetamines and hallucinogens as we consider that it is essential for a clinician to be aware of them and understand their mechanisms in order to optimize the therapeutic management.

References 1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth Edition. DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing. Washington, DC, London, England, 2013. 2. Harri D., Batki S.: Stimulant psychosis: symptom profile and acute clinical course. Am. J. Addict. 2000,9,1,28-37. 3. Srisurapanont M., Ali R., Marsden I., Suriga A., WadaK., Monteiro M.: Psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine psychotic in patients. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003, 6,4, 347-352. 4. Grace A.A.: Dopamine system dysregulation by the ventral subiculum as the common pathophisiological

effect of eight week aerobic training on plasma levels of serotonin and depression in addicted men to methamphetamine during rehabilitation. Alborz. Univ. Med. J., 6: 66-74. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.aums.6.1.66. 4. Arazi H., Dadvand S.S., Tavakoli-Fard M. (2017) Neurotransmitters and cardiovascular responses to aerobic and resistance exercise in men addicted to methampheta-mine. Baltic. J. Sport. Health. Sci., 3(106). 5. Banitalebi E., Faramarzi M., Nuri R., Khosrozadeh J., Ghafoorian M. (2010) Effect of exercise training on health-related physical fitness factors and