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LITERATURE CITED 1. Davidovits, J. (1994). Geopolymers: man-made rock geosynthesis and the resulting development of very early high strength cement. J. Mater. Educ. 16(2–3), 91–139. 2. Yun-Ming, L., Cheng-Yong, H., Abdullah, M.M.A.B. & Hussin, K. (2016). Structure and properties of clay-based geopolymer cements: A review. Prog. Mater. Sci. 83, 595–629. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2016.08.002. 3. Ilic, B.R., Mitroviv, A.A. & Milicic, L.R. (2010). Thermal treatment of kaolin clay to obtain metakaolin. Hem. Ind. 64 (4), 351–356. DOI: 10.2298/HEMIND100322014I. 4. Liew, Y


The recent climate condition and pollution problem related to surface water have led to water scarcity in Malaysia. Huge amount of groundwater has been identified as viable source for drinking water. This paper was aimed to investigate groundwater’s quality at specific location and metakaolin’s potential in the groundwater treatment in the removal of manganese. Groundwater purging was determined to be sufficient at 120 minutes where all three parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen and conductivity) were stabilized. The groundwater studied is classified as both anoxic and reductive due the low dissolved oxygen value. It also can be categorized as brackish due to high value of conductivity and total dissolved solid. Manganese content in groundwater was determined as higher than of that permissible limit for raw water and drinking water which makes it unsuitable for them not suitable for consumption and cleaning purpose. Average manganese concentration in samples was 444.0 ppb where the concentrations of manganese ranged from 229.4 ppb to 760.3 ppb. Manganese developed is not that a strong positive correlation against iron concentration, total dissolved solids and conductivity; whereas has a moderate negative correlation against dissolved oxygen. The capability adsorption of manganese by metakaolin was assessed via batch method which indicated optimum dosage and contact time was 14g that removed average 30.2% and contact time optimum at 120 minutes which removed 33.2% manganese from the sample.


Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of −2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or ‘Intermediate’ energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.


This study explores the influence of alkali activators on the initiation of polymerization reaction of alumino-silicate minerals present in class-F fly ash material. Different types of fly ash aggregates were produced with silicate rich binders (bentonite and metakaolin) and the effect of alkali activators on the strength gain properties were analyzed. A comprehensive examination on its physical and mechanical properties of the various artificial fly ash aggregates has been carried out systematically. A pelletizer machine was fabricated in this study to produce aggregate pellets from fly ash. The efficiency and strength of pellets was improved by mixing fly ash with different binder materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin and bentonite. Further, the activation of fl y ash binders was done using sodium hydroxide for improving its binding properties. Concrete mixes were designed and prepared with the different fly ash based aggregates containing different ingredients. Hardened concrete specimens after sufficient curing was tested for assessing the mechanical properties of different types concrete mixes. Test results indicated that fly ash -GGBS aggregates (30S2-100) with alkali activator at 10M exhibited highest crushing strength containing of 22.81 MPa. Similarly, the concrete mix with 20% fly ash-GGBS based aggregate reported a highest compressive strength of 31.98 MPa. The fly ash based aggregates containing different binders was found to possess adequate engineering properties which can be suggested for moderate construction works.


The application of small-sized metal fillers (SMF) provides a combination of high bulk density, increased durability and ferromagnetic properties of composite materials on the cement basis. However, the total strength of the composite can be compromised by poor adhesion of metal particles with the cement matrix. The use of versatile additives like microsilica and metakaolin is able to improve the structural integrity and mechanical properties of heavy concretes. The paper considers the results of a study using specimens of heavy concretes with SMF aiming to estimate its strength, structural features and ultrasonic parameters. It was found that the contact of SMF particles with the cement was not perfect, since the voids appeared between them and the cement matrix during the cement hydration process (exothermal reaction). Due to the border porosity, the specimens with the metal fillers have lower compressive strength, lower ultrasound velocity and increased frequency slope of attenuation. Microsilica and metakaolin additives facilitate better contact zone between the cement matrix and metal fillers.

adalekanyag: az uveggranulatum Technika Műszaki Szemle, 2013 [8] BALÁZS G.: Epitőanyagok es kemia, Műszaki Konykiado, 1984 [9] LECZOVICS P.: Extenziv zoldtetők hazai vizsgalatai Magyar Építéstechnika, 2011/7-8 p.52-55. [10] SUGÁR V., LECZOVICS P.: Miből lesz a betonkenu? ÉTE konferencia, Budapest, 2012 [11] [12],%20m%FBsz%E1l%20er%F5s%EDt%E9s%FB%20betonok.pdf

. - SHUI, Z. - LI, Q. - GENG, H.: Combined effect of metakaolin and sea water on performance and microstructures of concrete. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 74, 2015, pp. 57-64. [9] MBADIKE, E.M. - ELINWA, A.U.: Effect of salt water in the production of concrete. Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 30 (2), 2011, pp. 105-110. [10] AL-JOULANI, N.M.A.: Effect of wastewater type on concrete properties. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 10 (19), 2015, pp. 39865-39870. [11] EL-NAWAWY, O.A. - AHMAD, S.: Use of treated effluent in concrete

properties of blended cement pastes containing metakaolin and silica fume”, Sili. Indus. 74, 59-64. [31] Morsy, M. S., Rashad, A. M. and El-Nouhy, H. A. (2009b), “Effect of elevated temperature on physico-mechanical properties of metakaolin blended cement mortar”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics 31, 1-10. [32] Opoczky, L. (1992), “Progress of the particle size distribution during the intergrading of a clinker-limestone mixture”, Zem.-Kalk-Gips 45, 648-651. [33] Paillere, A. M., Buil, M. and Serrano, J. J. (1989), “Effect of fiber addition on the autogenous shrinkage

chloride ingress in concretes containing natural zeolite, metakaolin and silica fume exposed to various exposure conditions in a harsh marine environment." Construction and Building Materials, 46, 63-70. [8] Costa, A., and Appleton, J. (1999). “Chloride penetration into concrete in marine environment-Part I: Main parameters affecting chloride penetration”. Materials and Structures, 32(4), 252-259. [9] IS: 8112-1989, “43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement - Specification”, Bureau of Indian standards (BIS), New Delhi, India. [10]IS: 4031, “Methods of physical tests for

References 1. Meunier A., Velde B. Illite: Origin, Evolution and Metamorphism. Springer, New York, 2004. 2. Nesse, W.D. Introduction to Mineralogy. Oxford University Press, New York- Oxford, 2000. pp. 235-260. 3. Chuan, Hui Zhou, Keeling, J. Fundamental and applied research on clay minerals: from climate and environment to nanotechnology. Applied Clay Science, 2013, vol. 74, pp. 3-9. 4. Duxson, P., Grant C., Lukey, G.C., et al. The thermal evolution of metakaolin geopolymers