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Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Gas Production by Plant Secondary Metabolites (Saponin, Tannin and Essential Oil) – A Review of Ten-Year Studies

L., Prasad C.S. (2015). Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production. J. Appl. Microbiol., 118: 557–564. Bodas R., Prietoa N., García-Gonzálezb R., Andrésa S., Giráldeza F.J., López S. (2012). Manipulation of rumen fermentation and methane production with plant secondary metabolites. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 176: 78–93. Bouchard K., Wittenberg K.M., Legesse G., Krause D.O., Khafipour E., Buc-kley K.E., Ominski K.H. (2013). Comparison of feed intake, body

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Liquid Chromatography Metabolite Profiling of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

Liquid Chromatography Metabolite Profiling of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are the most frequently prescribed agents for HIV infections. This publication presents a validated, highly sensitive and selective isocratic HPLC method for the quantitative determination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and its metabolite tenofovir. Detection was performed on a UV detector. The linearity for the calibration curve in the concentration range of 80-20400 ng/mL for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TENDF) and 10-2560 ng/mL for tenofovir (TEN) is presented. Inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy of the proposed method were characterised by relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and percentage deviation, respectively: with both lower than 4% for all analytes. The limit of detection was 33.46 ng/mL for TENDF and 2.10 ng/mL for TEN.

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Design and simulation of microfluidic device for metabolite screening and quantitative monitoring of drug uptake in cancer cells

potential for screening sample contents. While in the second device, two straight channels serve as separate compartments for both drug and media, respectively with an additional cavity at the bottom for keeping the cells. These simplified miniaturized chips would serve as suspended microfluidics metabolites extraction platforms, and would be fabricated by making PDMS molds using soft lithography. Materials and methods The designs of the devices presented in this research work is inexpensive and simplified. The basic working principle of both the devices is

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Simultaneous Determination of Carbamazepine and Carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in Different Biological Matrices by LC-MS/MS

Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine; 2004. p. 1228-1255. 8. Kim K-B, Seo K-A, Kim S-E, Bae SK, Kim D-H, Shin J-G. Simple and accurate quantitative analysis of ten antiepileptic drugs in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal . 2011;56:771-777. 9. Zhu Y, Chiang H, Wulster-Radcliffe M, et al. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of carbamazepine and its main metabolite in rat plasma utilizing an automated blood sampling system. J Pharm Biomed Anal . 2005;38:119-125. 10. Breton H

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Antifungal Azole Metabolites: Significance in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

-11. Ducharme MP, Slaughter RL, Warbasse LH, Chandrasekar PH, Van de Velde V, Mannens G., et al. Itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole serum concentrations are reduced more than tenfold by phenytoin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995; 58: 617-24. Shuguang M, Chowdhury SK, Alton KB. Application of mass spectrometry for metabolite identification. Curr Drug Metab 2006; 7 (5): 503-23 16787159 (P, S, E, B). Breckenridge A. Clinical significance of interactions with antifungal agents. Br J Dermatol 1992; 126: 39: 19

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Biomarkers Derived from Nicotine and its Metabolites: A Review

–197. 75. Curvall, M., E. Kazemi-Vala, and G. Englund: Conjugation pathways in nicotine metabolism; in : Effects of Nicotine on Biological Systems, edited by F. Adlkofer and K. Thurau, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 1991, pp. 69–75. 76. Seaton, M.J., E.S. Vesell, H. Luo, and E.M. Hawes: Identification of radiolabeled metabolites of nicotine in rat bile. Synthesis of S-(–)-nicotine N -glucuronide and direct separation of nicotine-derived conjugates using high-performance liquid chromatography; J. Chroma-togr. 621 (1993) 49

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Pilot study for the presence of fungal metabolites in sheep milk from first spring milking

Introduction Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites of fungi of different genera, e.g. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium . Mycotoxin production can occur under favourable conditions of humidity, temperature, and level of oxygen in the field, during harvesting, or post-harvesting during transport or storage. The presence of toxic metabolites in an animal diet may cause many serious health conditions such as teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, kidney and liver damage, or immune system suppression. The toxic effects differ by

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Neonicotinoids and their Metabolites in Human Biomonitoring: A Review

-132. Domingo, J.L., Marti-Cid, R., Castell, V. and Llobet, J.M.. 2008. Human exposure to PBDEs through the diet in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend. A review of recent literature on dietary PBDE intake. Toxicology, 248: 25-32. ECOPEST, http://www.ecopest.gr/index.php?lang=en.accessed at 25-05-2015. Engel, S.M., Berkowitz, G.S., Barr, D.B., Teitelbaum, S.L., Siskind, J., Meisel, S.J., Wetmur, J.G. and Wolff , M.S., 2007. Prenatal organophosphate metabolite and organochlorine levels and performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment

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Mass Spectra of Tobacco Alkaloid - Derived Nitrosamines, their Metabolites, and Related Compounds

. Dufva and B. Homstedt: Studies on the identification of tobacco alkaloids, their mammalian metabolites and related compounds by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry; Beitr. Tabakforsch. 8 (1976) 339-349. 16. Glenn, D. F., and W. B. Edwards: Synthesis and mass spectrometry of some structurally related nic~ otinoids; J. Org. Chem. 43 (1978) 2860-2870.

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Chemical Methods for Determination of Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Biological Material

. Concentration and profile of 22 urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in the US population. Environ Res 2008;107:320-31. Strickland P, Kang D, Sithisarankul P. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine as biomarkers of exposure and effect. Environ Health Perspect 1996;104:927-32. Onyemauwa F, Rappaport SM, Sobus JR, Gajdošova D, Wu R, Waidyanatha S. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantify monohydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine. J Chromatogr

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