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. Vittoz R., Godefroy C.H. (2001) How to control your brain at will , IAB, Manufactured in te United States of America, p. 45; 6. Biddle S.J.H., Fox K.R., Boutcher S.H. (2002) Physical Activity And Psychological Well – Being , Editor Routledge Taylor and Frances Group, London and New York, e – Library; 7. Mauti E. (2012) Training autogen , Tecniche, sequenze ed esercizi, Giunti Demetra Editore, p.16; 8. Brugnoli M. P.(2005) Techniche di mental training nello sport , Vincere la tensione aumentare la concentrazione e la performance agonistica, Edizioni Red, Italia, p

Effects of a Process-Oriented Goal Setting Model on Swimmer's Performance

The aim of this work was to study the impact of the implementation of a mental training program on swimmers' chronometric performance, with national and international Portuguese swimmers, based on the goal setting model proposed by Vasconcelos-Raposo (2001). This longitudinal study comprised a sample of nine swimmers (four male and five female) aged between fourteen and twenty, with five to eleven years of competitive experience. All swimmers were submitted to an evaluation system during two years. The first season involved the implementation of the goal setting model, and the second season was only evaluation, totaling seven assessments over the two years. The main results showed a significant improvement in chronometric performance during psychological intervention, followed by a reduction in swimmers' performance in the second season, when there was no interference from the investigators (follow-up).

References 1. Mamassis G., & Doganis G. (2004). The effects of a mental training program on juniors pre-competitive anxiety, self-confidence, and tennis performance , Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16(2), 118-137. 2. Gould D., Udry E., Tuffey S., & Loehr J. (1996). Burnout in competitive junior tennis players: I. A quantitative psychological assessment , Sport Psychologist, 10, 322-340. 3. Weinberg R., Grove R., & Jackson A. (1992). S trategies for building self-efficacy in tennis players: A comparative analysis of Australian and American coaches , Sport

Psychol Sci 2011 6 348 356 10.1177/1745691611413136 Hatzigeorgiadis A, Galanis E, Zourbanos N, Theodorakis Y. Self-talk and competitive sport performance. J Appl Sport Psychol , 2014; 26: 82–95. 10.1080/10413200.2013.790095 Hatzigeorgiadis A Galanis E Zourbanos N Theodorakis Y. Self-talk and competitive sport performance J Appl Sport Psychol 2014 26 82 95 10.1080/10413200.2013.790095 Holliday B, Burton D, Sun G, Hammermeister J, Naylor S, Freigang D. Building the better mental training mousetrap: is periodization a more systematic approach to promoting performance


Mindfulness is a complex mental state meaning paying attention to the present moment but non judgemental, practically awareness of present. Developed like a form of mental training, has the objective to replace automatic or reactive modes of mind.

Processes to improve a non-judgemental attitude by mindfulness meditation and cognitive training may relieve psychological distress in COPD, where stigma and self blame, associated with depression are highly prevalent. Mindfulness based trainings could be included as add on treatments in pulmonary rehabilitation programs , with a hope to improve patients self-care and adherence.


Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low, which seems insufficient and calls for adequate intervention measures to be taken.

. Psychodiagnostics and Psychodynamics . Abingdon: Routledge, 278. 8. Unestal L.E., Bundzen P., Malinin A. (1992). Integrated psy-Integrated psychophysical training: Methodology and construction. Mental training for sport and life in Russia . Orebro, Sweden. 14-16. 9. Vysochina N.L. (2013). Optimisation of the goal-setting system for athletes by coaching. Bulletin of Chernihiv National Pedagogical University 112(1), 75-78 [in Russian]. 10. Platonov V.N. (2015). The system of training athletes in Olympic sports. General theory and its practical applications. Kyiv: Olympic

Sydney 2000 and Salt Lake City 2002. (in Polish) Kob. Sport 3:6-9. Kłodecka-Różalska J. (2006) Mental training achievements and future applications of psychology in Polish sports. Phys. Educ. Sport 50 (4):99-107. Kłodecka-Różalska J. (2007) "Face to face" with the whole world: how to mentally prepare the team for the Olympics. Pol. J. Sports Med. 23:184-188. Kraemer W. J., S. J. Fleck (2004) Creating individualized programs. In: Strength Training for Young Athletes. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, pp. 52-61. Laing R. M., D. J. Carr (2005) Is protection part

. Physiological determinants of climbing-specific finger endurance and sport rock climbing performance. J Sports Sci. 2007;25(12):1433-43. 13. Stern JT, Paré EB, Schwartz JM. New perspectives on muscle use during locomotion: electromyographic studies of rapid and complex behaviors. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1980;80(4):287-91. 14. Bartlett JL, Sumner B, Ellis RG, Kram R. Activity and functions of the human gluteal muscles in walking, running, sprinting, and climbing. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2014;153(1):124-31. 15. Horst E. Maximum climbing: mental training for peak performance and

coordination motor abilities . Katowice: AWF Katowice. [in Polish] 13. Todorov A.S. (1991). Control of coordinative training preparation of freestyle wrestlers . Doctoral thesis, GCOLIFK, Moscow. [in Russian] 14. Gierczuk D. (2008). Level of selected indicators of coordination motor abilities in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestlers aged 13-14. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 15(4), 192-199. 15. Jutley R.S. (2003). Fit for motorsport: Improve your race performance with better physical and mental training . UK: Haynes Publishing. 16. Retrieved January 9