. Vittoz R., Godefroy C.H. (2001) How to control your brain at will , IAB, Manufactured in te United States of America, p. 45; 6. Biddle S.J.H., Fox K.R., Boutcher S.H. (2002) Physical Activity And Psychological Well – Being , Editor Routledge Taylor and Frances Group, London and New York, e – Library; 7. Mauti E. (2012) Training autogen , Tecniche, sequenze ed esercizi, Giunti Demetra Editore, p.16; 8. Brugnoli M. P.(2005) Techniche di mentaltraining nello sport , Vincere la tensione aumentare la concentrazione e la performance agonistica, Edizioni Red, Italia, p
Effects of a Process-Oriented Goal Setting Model on Swimmer's Performance
The aim of this work was to study the impact of the implementation of a mental training program on swimmers' chronometric performance, with national and international Portuguese swimmers, based on the goal setting model proposed by Vasconcelos-Raposo (2001). This longitudinal study comprised a sample of nine swimmers (four male and five female) aged between fourteen and twenty, with five to eleven years of competitive experience. All swimmers were submitted to an evaluation system during two years. The first season involved the implementation of the goal setting model, and the second season was only evaluation, totaling seven assessments over the two years. The main results showed a significant improvement in chronometric performance during psychological intervention, followed by a reduction in swimmers' performance in the second season, when there was no interference from the investigators (follow-up).
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Mindfulness is a complex mental state meaning paying attention to the present moment but non judgemental, practically awareness of present. Developed like a form of mental training, has the objective to replace automatic or reactive modes of mind.
Processes to improve a non-judgemental attitude by mindfulness meditation and cognitive training may relieve psychological distress in COPD, where stigma and self blame, associated with depression are highly prevalent. Mindfulness based trainings could be included as add on treatments in pulmonary rehabilitation programs , with a hope to improve patients self-care and adherence.
Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low, which seems insufficient and calls for adequate intervention measures to be taken.
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