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, hence city images developed by observers of different ages may differ significantly. Every individual creates his or her own image but the images are usually consistent within homogenous groups ( Lynch 1960 ). When analysing mental maps, geographers and other researchers representing the broadly understood spatial sciences try to connect the map contents with the properties or organisation of the space ( Harvey 1973 ; Lisowski 2003 ; Liszewski 2005 ; Gendziwiłł 2009 ). The statement of Błahut (2013) should be considered relevant in this context. He stated that “a

- tudás. Humán környezeti kogníció: eligazodás, úttalálás a térben. Budapest: Osiris Kiadó., DoA: 14.03.2014 Da Vinha, L., 2011: Accessing the conceptual ‘goodness’ of geographic mental maps for foreign policy analysis. In: Revista Română de Geografie Politică. Year XIII, no. 2, pp. 133-148. De Martonne, E., 1931: Europe Centrale, in: De la Blache, P.V. and Gallois, L. editors, Géographie Universelle. Tome. IV, 2. partie, Paris: Armand Colin, pp. 381-845. Didelon, C., 2011

mental maps, was used to approach perception of the inner cities of Murcia and Valencia as a useful way to deal with cities’ affairs. Three main ways were used ( Zárate, Rubio 2011 ): visual (senses), carried out through observation and description following Kevin Lynch’s (1960) study on Boston, Jersey City and Los Angeles. A second approach focused on valuated preferences (cognitive evaluation) following Peter Gould and Rodney White (1974) . And a third one which integrates the feelings that space evokes in individuals known as the sense of the place ( Tuan 1974

Organizational Mental Map and Conative Competences

Employees with their knowledge, skills, behavior and personal traits impact the organizational learning. The concept of organizational mental map and conative competences, as inborn underlying characteristic that is influenced by employees being involved as well as endogenous and exogenous factors, is presented. Three Slovene small to mid-sized companies were studied in respect to the individual factors, especially conative competences, of their employees. The study suggests that conative side of mind and thus conative competences can actually influence the organizational learning. What matters in contemporary management practice is how hidden potentials are set free and how they intrinsically motivate employees according to their personal differences in capabilities. As conative competences are inborn and can not be learned but only encouraged, contrary to cognitive competences, it is important to better understand employees' personal traits.


Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement). However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance) or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance). Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map) which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial relations between individual elements and their groups independent of consciousness.

The process of map perception depends on various factors, including the nature, scale and map content, the degree of its complexity and compliance of the map language with cartographic principles. Important factors also include cartographic competencies of the recipient of a map conditioned by age, education and the task type. It is related to types of information about geographical space: semantic – concerning spatial references of particular objects and structural – connected to relations between elements of a map. Such relations may be determined at the regional or global level, they may concern qualitative or quantitative features as well as changes in time.

Nowadays, an important factor impacting the nature and consequences of map perception is the situation in which the process occurs. Traditionally, static and unchanging maps are used under other conditions than computer maps and navigation systems, making it possible to freely zoom in and zoom out the image and its spatial scope as well as to quickly go from one image to another.

Today, when the predominant way of map use is their perception on the screens of navigation systems, processes of map perception and factors conditioning it are also significant to understand the process. In the analysis of map perception, also tasks which are implemented using the map and the nature of information obtained by the map user must be taken into account.

, 43-65. Paris : L’Harmattan. Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The image of the city . Cambridge: MIT Press. Pagnini, Maria Paola. 1980. Percezione ambientale e organizzazione territoriale. Considerazioni preliminari. Dans : Ricerca geografica e percezione dell’ambiente , éd. Robert Geipel, Marcello Cesa Bianchi et al. , 191-194. Milano : Unicopli. Picco, Linda. 2013. Mental maps: la percezione dei confini del Friuli in un campione di studenti delle scuole medie superiori friulane. Dans : Lingua friulana e società: studi sociolinguistici sul Friuli di oggi , Linda Picco, 13

Patterns, the Characteristics and the Explanatory Factors of the Italian Entrepreneurs’ Mental Maps, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen. MUSOLINO, D. (2016), ‘L’attrattività percepita di regioni e province del Mezzogiorno per gli investimenti produttivi’, Rivista economica del Mezzogiorno, 30 (1), pp. 45-70. MUSOLINO, D, MEESTER, W. J, and PELLENBARG, P. H. (2016), ‘The mental maps of Italian, German and Dutch entrepreneurs: a comparison’, draft paper. NIFO, A. and VECCHIONE, G. (2014), ‘Do Institutions Play a Role in Skilled Migration? The Case of Italy’, Regional


HBO Hungary’s original series, Aranyélet, proves to be an interesting case study in terms of location strategies in Eastern European TV shows. It is refreshing in the sense that – contrary to other TV programmes attempting to showcase life in Budapest – it does not feel the need to represent locality by swamping the viewer with iconic tourist destinations of the capital. Instead, the characteristic “Hungarianness” of the show appears through displaying personal living spaces of people from a wide range of socio-cultural backgrounds, all of which represent the typical Hungarian strata.

In our paper, we have used a simplified categorization of social classes apparent in Hungarian society and connected these groups with characters of Aranyélet. Then, we have scrutinized the living spaces of these characters as represented in the show, paying special attention to their likely location, furnishing, building materials, and general condition. By this analysis, we aim to prove that the show tries to create an alternative mental map of Budapest and its population, covering all strata of society with painting a picture of their lifestyle and living conditions.

Our paper draws on the work of Kim Toft Hansen and Anne Marit Waade, who, in their volume Locating Nordic Noir – From Beck to The Bridge, place a large emphasis on aspects of location studies in contemporary Scandinavian crime.


In this article I argue that the developments of countries going through transition from authoritarian to democratic rule are always stamped by numerous references to formerly sanctioned and fully operational institutionalized violence. A perfect exemplification of this phenomenon is [post-] apartheid South Africa and its writing. In the context of the above, both the social and the literary realm of the 1990s might be perceived as resonant with Giorgio Agamben’s ‘concentrationary’, deeply divisive imaginary. Escaping from, and concurrently remembering, past fears, anxieties, yet seeking hope and consolation, the innocent but also the formerly outlawed and victimized along [interestingly enough] with [ex]perpetrators exemplify, as discussed in J. M. Coetzee’s and Z. Mda’s novels, the necessity of an exposure of the mechanism of South African ‘biopoliticization’ of life. Their stories prove how difficult the uprooting of the mentality of segregation, hatred and the policy of bracketing the other’s life as insubstantial, thus vulnerable to instrumental violence, in [post-] apartheid society was. In view of the above what is to be highlighted here is the authorial perception of various attempts at disavowing past and present violence as detrimental to South African habitat. In the end, coming to terms with the past, with the belligerent nature of local mental maps, must inevitably lead to the acknowledgement of guilt and traumatic suffering. Individual and collective amnesia conditioned by deeply-entrenched personal culpability or personal anguish is then construed as damaging, and as such is subject do deconstructive analysis.

pedagogiky a sociálnej pedagogiky. Nitra: PF UKF. Kosíková, V. (2011). Psychologie ve vzdelávaní a její psychodidaktické aspekty. Praha: Grada. Kovac, D., & Bertoncelj, A. (2008). Organizational Mental Map and Conative Competences. Research papers, 41, 127-135. Kováčik, Š. (2009). Niekoľko námetov na skvalitnenie tvorby učebníc. In Kurikulum a učebnice z pohľadu pedagogického výskumu. Zborník príspevkov z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie. Bratislava: Štátny pedagogický ústav. Mareš, J. (2011). Učení a subjektívní mapy pojmů. Pedagogika, 61, 215-247. Nogová, M. (2009). Je