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It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.
Kehinde Kazeem Kanmodi, Olanrewaju Isaac Owoeye, Almu Bello and Linda Ekele Iyadi
Madness, in simple terms, can be defined as a state of severe mentalillness ( Merriam-Webster 2017 ). Mentalillness, according to the American Psychiatric Association, can be described as a health condition involving changes in thinking, emotion or behaviour (or a combination of these) ( American Psychiatric Association 2017 ).
The etiological/risk factors of mentalillness are diverse ( Cirulli et al 2009 ). However, the major factors include developmental stress, substance abuse, and nutritional factors ( Dube et al., 2003 , Cirulli et al
Ewelina Soroka, Kamila Dziwota, Justyna Pawęzka and Marcin Olajossy
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This paper presents an attempt to critically investigate the literary work of Japanese artist Kusama Yayoi (b. 1929). It takes as its object two of Kusama’s early prose texts and, by reading them through a feminist account of identity as fetishism, shows that the two novels presented in this paper-Kurisutofā danshō kutsu (1984) and Rijin kāten no shūjin (1984)-can be understood as a critical engagement with a potentially non-normative feminine self and, in a broader sense, as a negotiation of the state of being a woman in a patriarchal/androcentric society. These features can be traced back to her 1960s sculptural work and her Infinity Net Paintings. By not only situating Kusama’s literary work in a socio-historical context but also demonstrating that it constitutes an intertextual continuum with the rest of her artistic oeuvre, this paper offers an understanding of Kusama’s work besides the dominant narrative of her mental illness and lays the ground for further investigations into her literary texts.
A psychiatric hospital is a special place. People undergoing treatment are in a unique situation. Mental illness remains a mystery for scientists because we do not know what factors influence its appearance. There were also no drugs that would completely cure the patient, as you never know whether the medicine will affect a particular person. Mental illnesses evoke anxiety and fear of the community. Some patients take disturbing or dangerous actions. Their behaviors are referred to as specific and different ones. A similar situation is caused by the appearance of psychotic symptoms. One should pay attention to delusions and hallucinations here. These symptoms cause the patient’s situation to deteriorate. Ultimately, they can cause dangerous behavior.
It happens that a relative of a patient, who is in such condition, must take action without his/her consent. A similar issue has been analyzed in Poland for almost thirty years. Individual regulations, in exceptional cases, allow for undertaking coercive actions: treating the patient without consent, applying direct coercion. These interventions are controlled. Polish psychiatric legislation is constantly changing (new control institutions are introduced, the role of the family court is increased). This article presents the latest amendments. They are based on the principle of respect for human rights and freedoms.
increased cardiometabolic risk in people with schizophrenia and other severe mentalillnesses. Lancet Psychiatry 2: 452-464, 2015
5. De Hert M, Schreurs V, Vancampfort D, van Winkel R . Metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia: a review. World Psychiatry 8: 15–22, 2009.
6. Mitchell AJ, Vancampfort D, Sweers K et al . Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia and related disorders – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 39: 306–318, 2013.
7. Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Correll CU et al
The article presents a study on delusory changes in perceiving one’s own body in a patient with mental illness. The story of Daniel Paul Schreber is an example of strongly experienced delusions, which, in the described form are contemporarily attributed to schizophrenia. This story, coming from over one hundred years ago, is still vivid, and actualizes the image of mental illness and suffering connected with it in the thoughts of the reader. The author presents these characteristics focusing mainly on the symptoms of dysmorphognosia or dysmorphophobia, which became an important element of delusional constructs. He describes the nature of the experienced symptoms in detail, documenting them with extensive quotations from „Diary of a mental patient” written by such patient. The study of mental illness presented in the paper reveals the meanders of distorted psyche and some changes that are happening in it under the influence of delusions. It is a study undertaking the issue of describing and understanding the symptoms of mental disorders.