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Academy of Political and Social Science 580: 288–305. Breslau, Joshua, Michael Lane, Nancy Sampson, and Ronald C. Kessler. 2008. Mental Disorders and Subsequent Educational Attainment in a US National Sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research 42(9): 708–716. Burchardt, Tania. 2005. The Education and Employment of Disabled Young People: Frustrated Ambition. Bristol UK: The Policy Press. Card, David. 1999. The Causal Effect of Education on Earnings. Pp. 1801–1863 in Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 3, edited by Orley Ashenfelter and David Card. North Holland

mental illness. Qualitative study. British Journal Psychiatry. 2004; 184:176–181. 19. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed Washington, DC: APA; 2013. 20. Telles-Correia D, Saraiva S, Gonçalves J. Mental Disorder—The Need for an Accurate Definition. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2018; 12, 9:64. 21. Zhang M, Hong L, Zhang T, Lin Y, Zheng S, Zhou X, et al. Illness perceptions and stress: mediators between disease severity and psychological well-being and quality of life among patients with Crohn’s disease


Introduction: Currently, there are no fully reliable biomarkers to identify individuals suffering from depression, and conventional antidepressant treatment has its limitations. The potential influence of acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) on the treatment of mental disorders, including depressive disorders, was noted already in the 1980s.

Goal and method: The literature on the role of LAC in the treatment of mental disorders, in particular depressive disorders, was reviewed using the Google Scholar and Pub Med databases. Two lines of research were considered:

  1. 1the role of LAC in the therapy of various mental disorders and
  2. 2the role of LAC in the treatment of depression and dysthymia

Conclusions: Because LAC is safe to use and has a very good tolerance profile, authors have explored its role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. There are studies showing that LAC supplementation has a positive effect on ADHD treatment outcomes in boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and plays a role in the treatment of dementia. Research has also been conducted on the impact of LAC on the treatment of depressive and dysthymic disorders. Positive outcomes of such therapy have been reported. An important correlation has been observed between LAC concentrations and the severity and onset of depressive symptoms. For instance, reduced levels of LAC have been found in people with treatment-refractory depression. It has also been proposed that LAC could decrease vulnerability to depression.

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, LEVENSON JL, LYKETSOS CG. Psychosomatic medicine: a new psychiatric subspecialty. Acad Psychiatry, 2004, 28, 4-11. 12. BĂBAN A, DUMITRAŞCU DL. Somatisation: a modern concept for a classic clinical syndrome, Journal of of Medical Life, 1991, 8. 13. DIMSDALE JE, XIN Y, KLEINMAN A, PATEL V, NARROW WE, SIROVATKA PJ, REGIER DA. Somatic Presentations of mental disorders: refining the research agenda for DSM-5. Arlington VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2009. 14. FINK P. Somatization disorder and related disorders. In: GELDER MG, LOPEZ-IBOR JJ, ANDREASEN NC, editors. New

References 1. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed Washington, DC: APA; 2013. 2. Telles-Correia D, Saraiva S, Gonçalves J. Mental Disorder—The Need for an Accurate Definition. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2018; 12, 9:64. 3. Petrie KJ, Broadbent E, Kydd R. Illness perceptions in mental health: Issues and potential applications. Journal Mental Health. 2008;17(6):559–564. 4. Chemperek E, Patyrak J, Wieczorski M. Analiza postaw pacjentów wobec choroby. Zdrowie Publiczne. 2008; 118 (3): 259–263. 5. Fortune G

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