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The article intends to be a screening of family benefits in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU) and to contribute to the research of shared trends with respect to family approach in these countries. Four types of family benefits including eight distinctive categories are analysed: child-benefit, child care allowances, child-raising allowances, and other benefits (birth and adoption grants, allowance for single parents, special allowances for children with disabilities, advance payments for maintenance and other allowances). The paper is based on primary and secondary analysis of 28 sets of national data provided through the European Union's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC). Three categories of member states are considered: founder member states of the EU, other “old” member states, and the new Central and Eastern ones. Chronological development of national regulations with impact on family benefits is analysed in connection with the moment of becoming a member state. Various forms of family benefits legislation and their main subjects of interest are further researched. The last part of the article looks at the coverage of family benefits. Seven member states operate in this respect based on regulations adopted before EU accession. Belgium, Finland, and Lithuania have the “most preserved” family regulations per category of member states. The first three topics of family regulations are: child, family, and allowance / benefit. The most frequently provided family benefits are: birth and adoption grants, and special allowance for children with disabilities. All eight family benefits are provided in France, Finland, Hungary, and Slovenia. Only two types of family benefits are available in Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus.

/2 Witkowska J. (2008a), Regional Integration and Capital Mobility in the World Economy: Experiences of the European Union, NAFTA and AFTA , ‘Comparative Economic Research’ , Vol. 11, 2008, No. 1/2 Witkowska J. (2008b), "The Role of Foreign Direct Investor Policies in Creating a Knowledge-Based Economy in the New Member States of the European Union, Innovation, Technology and Knowledge-Based Economy in the EU New Member States , edited by J. Witkowska, Z. Wysokińska, Comparative Economic Research , Vol. 11, 2008, No. 3 Wysokińska Z., Witkowska J., Integracja europejska


Contemporary enterprises should be innovative to survive on a competitive market. Innovations are the basic factor of development of each firm. They must be systematically developed and implemented in all areas of socio-economic activity. The base for the creation of such a system can be a complex diagnosis of the current state of the commonness of introduction of the innovations in particular enterprises. This diagnosis can be conducted on the base of results of the empirical researches, conducted in February 2016 by TNS Political & Social in 28 EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States. These researches, among other things, refered to commonness of introduction of innovations in enterprises.

In this publication an attempt to achieve the following objectives is undertaken:

  1. conducting of statistical-comparative analysis of the empirical researches on the commonness of introduction of specific types of innovations in enterprises operating in the Member States of the European Union and the United States,
  2. verification of the thesis that the commonness of implementation of certain types of innovations in enterprises functioning in the EU Member States is relatively low and varied.

The analysis of empirical material allowed to achieve these objectives.


In the era of innovation revolution it is reasonable to conduct a rational innovation policy at the national, regional and enterprise level. Innovations have become an essential factor of the development of enterprises, increasing their competitiveness, improving their market position, increasing their economic efficiency etc. Assumptions of this policy should be based on a precise diagnosis of the existing situation in the field of innovation activity. In this article the attempt of this diagnosis was taken by seeking answers on the following questions: 1) Did companies operating in the Member States of the European Union conduct rational policy in range of innovation activity? 2) Did implemented innovations contribute to obtain the specified turnover? 3) What part of the obtained turnover did enterprises invest in innovation activities? To answer on these questions the method of statistical-comparative analysis of empirical researches was used. These researches were conducted by TNS Political & Social in the 28 Member States of the European Union, Switzerland and the United States in February 2016 on a group 14117 enterprises on EU business innovation terms.


In the modern world, processes of migration are expected to contribute to economic development, the interchange of progressive technologies and knowledge as well as the blending of cultures. Solving the problems linked to migration processes is an important task to be accomplished by various state policies of European Union member countries. Both internal and external reasons explain why such policies are treated with much consideration nowadays. The present paper describes the development of European Union regulations on immigration and asylum, while tackling certain - primarily legal - aspects of immigration policies, too. Its conclusion based on the discussion of processes and legal provisions relates to the possible future of Europe.


This paper attempts to assess the level of innovativeness of the economies of the ‘new’ EU member states1 in the years 2008-2015, with particular attention paid to the position of the Polish economy. This assessment was carried out on the basis of a summary index constructed with the use of statistical methods of linear ordering. The paper also presents conclusions from the analysis of the evolution of selected factors characterizing the innovativeness of the new EU member states. In the conducted analysis, statistical data from Eurostat were used to describe the innovativeness of economies with respect to two areas: (a) science and technology; and (b) education and training. The developed ranking of innovativeness of the new EU Member States, built on the basis of a summary index, makes it possible to state that the countries with the highest level of innovativeness among 13 analyzed countries were Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Malta. Poland’s above‑average value of the summary index for these countries occupied sixth position in the ranking, which indicates a relatively low level of innovativeness of the Polish economy.


This paper evaluates the Eastern and Central EU regions according to the efficiency level of innovation systems by application of nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA). The most technologically inefficient NUTS2 regions of Central and Eastern EU are identified. The governmental institutions in these regions should enforce a higher level of regional innovative activity, as regional potential to create a higher value to the economy with current resources has not been reached yet.

Differences in the Development and Investment in Human Capital in the Member States of the European Union

Human capital and knowledge are most important factors of current development processes, contributing to the innovativeness and competitiveness of the economies. The important role of these factors was underlined also in Europe 2020 Strategy. However, due to immaterial character of investment in human capital and because of the high level of decentralization of human capital development policy, these actions are characterized by a relatively low efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is firstly to identify the importance of human capital development policy within EU policies. Secondly, it is to identify and conduct a comparative analysis of national differences in human capital development and to identify points of reference for key measures of the development in question. Thirdly, this paper is to specify models of human capital development policy from the perspective of how much involved local authorities are in its implementation and efficiency.

to Implement EU Law: the European Arrest Warrant in the United Kingdom. In: STEFANOU, C. et XANTHAKI, H. (eds.): Draft ing Legislation – A Modern Approach, Aldershot : Ashgate, 2009, p. 211. 17 European Convention on the suppression of terrorism. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 1975. 18 Convention drawn up on the Basis of Art. K.3 of the Treaty on European Union on a simplifi ed extradition Procedure between the Member States of the European Union of 10 March 1995. OJ C 78 of 30.3.1995. 19 Convention of 27 September 1996 drawn up on the Basis of Art. K.3 of

References Almy, R. (2014). Valuation and Assessment of Immovable Property. OECD Working Papers on Fiscal Federalism, no. 19, OECD Publishing. CASE (2013). Study to Quantify and Analyse the VAT Gap in the EU-27 Member States. Final Report. Warsaw. Copenhagen Economics (2007). Study on Reduced VAT Applied to Goods and Services in the Member States of the European Union. Final report. 6503 DG TAxUD. European Commission (2011). Tax Reforms in EU Member States 2011. Tax Policy Challenges for Economic Growth and Fiscal Sustainability. Taxation Papers. no. 28