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UN United Nations Commodity Trade
Numerous representatives of theories of international relations, security theories or alliance theories have examined the new role of the North Atlantic Alliance or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the post-bipolar world. Parallel with the theoretical examination of goals and tasks, NATO has transformed itself in practice, following the realities of the contemporary global era. In trying to achieve and keep the primacy of the strongest military- political organization, the Alliance has - especially in the Strategic Concept adopted in Lisbon in 2010-set the normative and institutional foundations of its global engagement, fulfilling the military (hard) and a wide array of non-military (soft) security challenges. This strategy has given rise to "Euro-Atlanticism", as a subsystem of international relations based on strong American-European relations, to fit with the process of regionalization of global politics. However, the 2013-2014 crisis in Ukraine has turned the focus of interest and activities of NATO once again primarily to Europe and it has stressed the importance and necessity of strengthening Euro-Atlantic security and defence ties. The most powerful member of the Alliance, the United States, is again strongly engaged in Europe and Russia, as a kind of successor to the Soviet Union, is once more detected as a major threat to European security. There have been many aspects of theories of international relations that have tried to explain the dynamic of the post-Cold War international community. However, the approach based on neo-realistic assumptions of the role of a security community, collective defence and the use of military force has proved to be dominant. NATO will continue to work on its political dimension as an alliance of the democratic world and the September 2014 Wales Summit will certainly mark the return of NATO to its roots, strengthening its security and military dimensions in the collective defence of Europe from Russia.
Brexit and Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 US presidential election has launched a wave of discussions in the international media and political science literature on “authoritarian populism” and a “populist explosion.” Although this paper also reflects on this new wave of populism in the West, it concentrates on the connections between democracy’s decline and the so-called populist explosion in eastern central Europe (ECE) and closely investigates the Hungarian case within the context of ECE. This paper describes populism in ECE as a product of the transition from fading facade democracies to emerging velvet dictatorships. These velvet dictatorships rely on the soft power of media and communication rather on the hard power of state violence. Paradoxically, the ruling anti-elite populist parties have developed a system of populism from above, managed by the new politico-business elite. Populism (social and national) and Euroscepticism are the two most basic, and twin, terms used to describe these new (semi)authoritarian regimes. Populism and Euroscepticism are convertible; they are two sides of the same coin as they express the same divergence from the EU mainstream. Therefore, this paper introduces the term: Eupopulism.
Ein neues Phänomen und der Trend der Zukunft nicht nur in Ostdeutschland
Abnehmende Bevölkerung als künftiger Megatrend der Stadt- und Raumentwicklung in Deutschland
Die Stadtentwicklung in Deutschland bekommt es zunehmend mit einem Phänomen zu tun, das ihr bislang nahezu völlig unbekannt war und dem die heutigen Stadtplaner und Kommunalpolitiker reichlich fassungs- und vor allem ziemlich instrumentenlos gegenüberstehen: Es ist die teilweise und in manchen Regionen. schon heute spürbare, aber nach allen Prognosen erst in ca. 10-15 Jahren so richtig nachhaltig einsetzende Abnahme der Gesamtbevölkerungszahl in allen
Dragan Mitić, Aleksandar Lebl, Mladen Mileusnić, Branimir Trenkić and Žarko Markov
This paper presents simulation model for the analysis of characteristics of base station, which may establish half-rate connections. Accuracy of realized simulation model is analyzed comparing its results to a number of corresponding results, which are obtained by calculation or presented in referenced literature. These corresponding results are obtained, in the first case, analytically, solving the system of equations, which are modelling the system and, in the second case, from the literature, which deals with the similar systems. At the end, simulation model is implemented to analyze in detail several systems with different total number of traffic channels. The results of simulation pointed out how much probability of connection loss decreases in the case of great traffic load, when half-rate connections realization is implemented.
In den letzten Jahren sind in der Bildung für Gesundheitsfachpersonen enorme Anstrengungen unternommen worden, um im Interesse des Patientenwohls und der Versorgungsqualität den hoch gesteckten Standards gerecht zu werden. Die Bildungskonzepte basieren dabei auf Rollenmodellen aus der Vergangenheit, transportieren und reproduzieren oft tradierte Vorstellungen über die gute Berufsausübung und zielen auf gefestigte Berufsidentitäten. Weil Megatrends wie Multimorbidität, Personalmangel, Forderungen nach Outcome-Belegen, die veränderten Erwartungen der
The promise of Newtonian science to create a universal precise explanation of all phenomena seems to be out-dated. “Cutting through complexity” may kill potential solutions. The complexity of real phenomena should be accepted and at best tamed by appropriate techniques. Complexity, a recent megatrend in the sciences, may effectuate another scientific revolution.
The assumption of a strong positive relationship between the specificity of an urban area and the operation of the housing market, which responds to megatrends in the market environment, has been the foundation of the research concept adopted for this study. The study treats the housing markets as complex, adaptive dynamic systems which develop through synergistic network responses. This paper employs a nonlinear critically-damped harmonic oscillator model and phase diagrams to describe the dynamics of housing prices (in the years 2006-2016) in order to demonstrate the synergistic network connections in selected Polish cities. In another important part of the study, the authors propose to employ non-classical dynamic measures, i.e. the absolute time of delay, relaxation time and a long-term level of equilibrium. The study has shown that network connections are strongly synchronized during periods of housing market instability (2006-2007), whereas the process of unsynchronization is observed during a period of stability (2008-2016). Moreover, phase diagrams have been used to demonstrate the similarity of trends in housing prices as well as the shapes of individual trajectories and the existence of multiple points of quasi-equilibrium.