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trauma at a level 1 trauma center. Conn Med 2009;73:389-94. 13. Soreide K. Epidemiology of major trauma. Br J Surg 2009;96:697-8. 14. Beuran M, Negoi I, Paun S, et al. [Mechanism of injury-trauma kinetics. What happened? How?] Chirurgia 2012;107:7-14 (Romanian). 15. Bener A, Omar AO, Ahmad AE, et al. The pattern of traumatic brain injuries: a country undergoing rapid development. Brain Inj 2010;24:74-80. 16. Soreide, K., Epidemiology of trauma deaths: location, location, location! World J Surg 2010;34: 1720-3. 17. WHO. Global Status Report On Road Safety Time For

Electrical Injuries: Etiology, Pathophysiology and Mechanism of Injury

Electrical injuries present serious and common form of trauma with a unique etiology, pathophysiology and mechanism of injury. The severity of the injury is determined by the intensity of the current, the type of current, the pathway of the current through the body, the duration of exposure to the current and electrical resistance to the current. Specific causes of electrical injuries are classified as: low-voltage injuries, high-voltage injuries, lightning injuries and other electrical injuries.

The three major mechanisms of electrical injuries are: direct tissue damage, thermal injury and mechanical injury. Exposure to alternating current is three times more dangerous than direct current of the same voltage. Nerves, muscles, and blood vesels have low resistance and are better electrical conductors than bone, tendon and fat. The electrical current is transmitted by direct way, indirect way and an arc.


Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.


Bilateral extensor tendon ruptures of the knee are not uncommon. However, simultaneous ruptures of the patellar tendon (PT) and contralateral quadriceps tendon (QT) are relatively rare injuries. These ruptures are frequently associated with chronic renal failure and minor trauma. However, they can occur spontaneously in healthy individuals. In this case report, a 43-year-old male with chronic renal failure who sustained bilateral extensor tendon ruptures (right knee: QT rupture, left knee: PT rupture) following an alternating current electrical shock was reported. To our knowledge, simultaneous quadriceps and contralateral patellar tendon rupture following an electric shock have not been reported yet. Etiology, mechanism of injury and treatment options of this rare injury are discussed together with a thorough literature review.


Introduction. Injuries are an extremely important public health problem, in both developed and developing countries. Various traumas contribute to some one third of deaths of the entire human population followed by cardiovascular diseases and cancer only. Understanding the epidemiology of trauma might improve hospitals’ ability to provide proper diagnoses and treatment.

Aim. The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological characteristics of injuries in the analyzed group of patients.

Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted in state of emergency and hospitalized in the Department of Trauma Surgery and Emergency Medicine at the Medical University of Lublin due to injuries that occurred from January 1st 2011 till December 31st 2011 was conducted. Mechanism of injury, mortality rate, age and gender correlations were studied.

Results. Some 485 patients were looked at in the study. The mortality rate reached 4.52% and was highest among males. Falling was the leading cause of injuries among patients

Discussion. The results of this study correspond with the observations of other authors concerning the age distribution. Mortality rates noticed in this study were lower than in other studies.

Conclusions. Trauma in elderly patients is a growing problem in trauma centers. Moreover, in the analyzed material incidence of blunt and non-transport related injuries increased.

Fractures of Joint Ankle

Joint ankle represents one of the most complicated anatomic-functional structures of locomotoric apparatus. Upper joint ankle (talocruralis) bind low tip-end of shank (tibia) and fibula with joint bone (talus) and represent joint among the bones of shank and foot bones. Upper joint ankle joint together with lower ankle joint acts like functional, anatomical and clinical entity not only in physiological conditions but as well in injuries. These injuries cause not only damages of bone structure but also of ligaments and soft structures. Fractures of maleolus as the most frequent of low extremities represent 10-12% of all fractures. As the most frequent mechanism of injury of joint ankle the inversion of foot is stated when it is in supination and adduction. This analysis had 151 patient who had joint ankle fracture both sexes, age 18-45, and among them there were 102 men (67.55%) and 49 women (32.45%). The patients whose diagnosis was joint ankle fracture were observed in Orthopedic - Casualty ward of Clinical Centre in Podgorica. The research period was May 2005-May 2009. The results of our research show that the most frequently fractures of joint ankle happened while running 52 patients (34.44%) and the least by fall from the height 22 (14.57%). The most frequent fracture type was SE type 48 (31.79%) and the least PA type 25 (16.56%).

of Sports Medicine. J.Am.Med.Assoc. , 273:402-407. Pieter W. (2000) Injuries and mechanisms of injury in karate competition. In: Proc. 1st World Congr.Sports Martial Arts, University de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France. Pieter W., E. Zemper (1997) Injuries rate in children participating in taekwodo competition. J.Trauma Inj.Inf.Crit.Care , 43:89-95. Rahnama N., M. Namazizadeh, H. Sadeghipour, A. Taghavi (2007) Incidence, type and mechanism of injuries in boy adolescence participating in taekwondo competitions. Olympic , 15 (4) Serial 40. Zetou E., A

-thirds more than among females, for cases aged under 40 years and being motorcyclists [ 10 , 11 ]. In low-income countries, 45% of the traffic mortalities are pedestrians, whereas the corresponding figure is 29% in middle-income and 18% in high-income countries [ 12 ]. Mostly, the mechanism of injuries is blunt [ 13 ]. Moreover, mortality from traffic accidents is higher during holidays, for example, during New Year or Thai New Year holidays (locally known as Songkran holidays) [ 7 ]. The proper use of a motorcycle helmet can reduce the risk of death by almost 40% and the

REFERENCES 1. Antoniades K, Karakasis D, Taskos N. Abducent nerve palsy following transverse fracture of the middle cranial fossa. J Craniomaxillo Surg. 1993;21(4):172-5. 2. Lazow SK, Izzo SR, Feinberg ME, Berger JR. Bilateral abducens nerve palsy secondary to maxillofacial trauma: report of case with proposed mechanism of injury. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1995;53(10):1197-9. 3. Ozveren MF, Sam B, Akdemir I, Aklan A, Tekdemir I, Deda H. Duplication of the abducens nerve at the petroclival region: an anatomic study. Neurosurgery. 2003;52(3):645-52; discussion 651

. Treatment related outcomes from blunt cerebrovascular injuries: importance of routine followup arteriography. Ann Surg. 2002;235:699-706. 8. Cogbill TH, Moore EE, Meissner M, et al. The spectrum of blunt injury to the carotid artery: a multicenter perspective. J Trauma. 1994;37:473-9. 9. Zelenock GB, Kazmers A, Whitehouse WM Jr, et al. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections: noniatrogenic traumatic lesions. Arch Surg. 1982;117:425-32. 10. Fabian TC, George SM Jr, Croce MA, et al. Carotid artery trauma: management based on mechanism of injury. J Trauma. 1990