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R eferences [1] N ewton , I. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, ed. trans. I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, Berkley, University of California Press, 1997. [2] Z hilin , P. A. Advanced Problems in Mechanics, v. 2, St Petersburg, Institute for Problems in Mechanical Engineering of Russian Academy of Sciences, 2006. [3] V elichenko , V. V. Matrix Geometrical Methods in Mechanics with Application to Robot Problems (in Russian), Moscow, Nauka, 1988. [4] T ruesdell , C. Essays in History of Mechanics, New York, Springer–Verlag, 1968. [5] H ilbert , D

Abstract

Burdur Lake is one of the largest lakes of Turkey consisting of about 23 700 ha. Unfortunately, Burdur Lake area and the lake depth decrease each year. Additionally, the salinity increased twice in 30 years because of the aridity. Burdur Municipality Drinking Water Pipeline had been constructed under Burdur Lake in 2002. Groundwater drained from deep wells was flowed to Burdur city under Burdur Lake. Burdur drinking water pipe line under Burdur Lake was broken to pieces during the storms in 2008, 2010 and 2013.

In this study, the stability analyses of Burdur Drinking Water Underlake Pipeline system were made for 2002-2008, 2008-2010 and 2010-2013 time periods by using the techniques of wave mechanics. Stability analysis was also made for the pipeline in the ditch with the gabions as a projection. Horizontal and vertical wave forces, weights of the cement bags and marble filled gabions were used at the calculations of wave mechanics. Soil mechanics parameters of the Burdur Lake and water hammer effect of the drinking water in the pipe line were also investigated in the content of this study.

Burdur Lake’s depth decreases every year because of the aridity, so the horizontal and vertical wave forces over the pipeline increase due to the decrease of the depth. Burdur Municipality could not use this pipeline system, so pipeline system must be placed in a ditch and suitable gabions that must be used in order to obtain the stability.

: Effect of Matrix Shrinkage, In: Proc. Euromech Colloquim 269, (Ed. A. Vautrin), France, St. Etienne, 1991, 1-8. Zhang, L., L. Ernst. Implementation of a Nonlinear Viscoelastic Theory, In: Finite Elements in Engineering and Science, Rotterdam, Balkema, 1997, 473-486. Zhang, L., L. Ernst, H. Brouwer. Transverse Behaviour of a Unidirectional Composite (Glass Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester). Part I. Influence of Fiber Packing Geometry. Mechanics of Materials , 27 (1998), No. 1 , 13-36. Zhang, L., L. Ernst, H. Brouwer. Transverse Behaviour of a Unidirectional

this direction with the fracture mechanics [ 5 ]. It is a tool that has proven itself in the description of the behavior of structures containing defects in an elastic medium. The extension to the case of materials having a nonelastic behavior still poses many problems. Thus, in the case of the elastic-plastic material or elastic-viscoplastic, using criteria based on the quantities K , J ,… etc. remains delicate. [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. However, the polymer materials have a complex microstructure. The co-existence and interaction of chains having a

Abstract

Based on the theory laid down in the Part 1 [1] in this paper we are going to display applications in physics and especially in mechanics. After a short summary on coupled fields in mechanics, we generally analyze the analogies in mechanics. As the most important, the electrical analogy is discussed in details. By the electrical analogy based analytical solution we display the results of the coupled thermo-hygro problem with second sound. Finally, a few experiments are discussed, eg. experiments by electrical analogy, experiment on diffusivities, experiment on relaxation time, experiment on hydroglobe. This latter one leads to the engineering application of the problem.

References [1] Hutchinson J.W. (1968): Singular behaviour at the end of a tensile crack in a hardening material . – Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.16, pp.13-31. [2] Rice J.R. and Rosengren G.F. (1968): Plane strain deformation near a crack tip in a power-law hardening material . – Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.16, pp.1-12. [3] Gałkiewicz J. and Graba M. (2006): Algorithm for determination of, ε ˜ i j   ( n , θ ) \font\mtmib=MTMIB$\tilde {\rm \varepsilon} _{ij} \left( { {\mtmib n}, {\bf \theta} } \right)$ , u ˜ i

References [1] Szekrenyes, A. Pre-stressed Composite Specimen for Mixed-mode I/II Crack- ing in Laminated Materials. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 29 (2010), 3309-3321. [2] O’Brien, K. Characterization, Analysis and Prediction of Delamination in Com- posites Using Fracture Mechanics, NASA Langley Research Center, 2001. [3] Szekrenyes, A. Improved Analysis of the Modified Split-cantilever Beam for Mode-III Fracture. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 51 (2009), 682-693. [4] Szekrenyes, A. Improved Analysis of Unidirectional Composite

References [1] ASTM (2005): ASTM E 1820-05 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fracture Toughness . – American Society for Testing and Materials. [2] ASTM (2011): ASTM E1921-11 Standard test method for determining of reference temperature T0 for ferritic steels in the transition range . – American Society for Testing and Materials. [3] BS 5762. Methods for crack opening displacement (COD) testing . – London: British Standards Institute; 1979. [4] BS 7448: Part 1. Fracture mechanics toughness tests: Part 1 – Method for determining of K Ic , critical CTOD

hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome. Anaesthesia. 2004; 59:899. 11. Sieh KM, Chu KM, Wong J. Inrtaabdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome. Langenbeck's Arch Surg. 2001; 386:53. 12. Moore FK, Hargest R, Martin M, Delicata RJ. Intraabdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome. Br. J. Surg. 2004; 91:1102. 13. Fahy BG,Barnas GM, Flowers JL, et al. The effects of increased abdominal pressure on lung and chest wall mechanics during laparoscopic surgery. Anesthe Analg. 1995; 81:744-50. 14. Strang CM, Freden F, Maripuu E

References [1] ASHBY, M. F., S. D. HALLAM. The Failure of Brittle Solids Containing Small Cracks under Compressive Stress States. Acta Metall., 34 (1986), No. 3, 497-510. [2] ASHBY, M. F., C. G. SAMMIS. The Damage Mechanics of Brittle Solids in Compression. Pure Appl. Geophys., 133 (1990), No. 3, 489-521. [3] BAUD, P, T. REUSCHLE, P. CHARLEZ. An improved Wing Crack Model for the Deformation and Failure of Rock in Compression. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 33 (1996), No. 5, 539-542. [4] BOBET, A. Fracture Coalescence in Rock Materials: Experimental Observations