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single-phase BaTiO 3 -BiFeO 3 system. J. Appl. Phys ., 113 , 144101-1-5. DOI: 10.1063/1.4799591. 7. Jartych, E., Malesa, B., Antolak-Dudka, A., & Oleszak, D. (2014). Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of multiferroic (BiFeO 3 ) 1-x -(BaTiO 3 ) x solid solutions prepared by mechanical activation. Acta Phys. Pol. A , 125 (3), 837–839. DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.125.837. 8. Malesa, B., & Mazurek, M. (2014). Hyperfine interactions in (BiFeO 3 ) 0.9 -(BaTiO 3 ) 0.1 ceramics prepared by mechanical activation. Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary w Gospodarce i Ochronie

. Jartych, E., Mazurek, M., Lisińska-Czekaj, A., & Czekaj, D. (2010). Hyperfine interactions in some Aurivillius Bim+1Ti3Fem-3O3m+3 compounds. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 322, 51-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.08.022. 5. Jartych, E., Pikula, T., Mazurek, M., Franus, W., Lisińska-Czekaj, A., Czekaj, D., Oleszak, D., Surowiec, Z., Akseńczuk, A., & Calka, A. (2016). Structure and magnetic properties of Bi5Ti3FeO15 ceramics prepared by sintering, mechanical activation and EDAMM process. A comparative study. Arch. Metall. Mater., 61, 869-874. DOI: 10.1515/amm-2016-0147. 6. Jartych, E

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the structure and hyperfine interactions of Bim+1Ti3Fem−3O3m+3 multiferroic Aurivillius compounds prepared by mechanical activation process. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied as complementary methods. After the process of mechanical milling, desired Aurivillius phases were not formed, thus, thermal treatment needed to be applied. Heating the product of mechanical activation up to 993 K allowed to obtain Aurivillius phases with relatively large amount of non-reacted hematite. However, after the material was annealed at an elevated temperature of 1073 K, the content of not fully synthesized hematite was significantly reduced. Mössbauer spectroscopy confirmed that Aurivillius compounds remain in paramagnetic state at room temperature.

Abstract

In this research, the mechanical activation method is proposed as an alternative process of preparation of the (BiFeO3)1-x-(BaTiO3)x solid solutions with various concentrations of barium titanate (x = 0.1÷0.9). However, mechanical milling itself does not allow obtaining the desired products and additional thermal treatment is needed to complete the solid-state reaction. In the present studies, X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied as complementary methods in order to study the structural and magnetic properties of materials. The investigations revealed that an increase of BaTiO3 concentration causes changes in the crystalline and hyperfine magnetic structure of the studied (BiFeO3)1-x-(BaTiO3)x system.

Abstract

The aim of this work was to prepare BiFeO3 by modified solid-state sintering and mechanical activation processes and to investigate the structure and hyperfine interactions of the material. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied as complementary methods. In the case of sintering, BiFeO3 phase was obtained from the mixture of precursors with 3 and 5 % excess of Bi2O3 during heating at 1023 K. Small amounts of impurities such as Bi2Fe4O9 and sillenite were recognized. In the case of mechanical activation, the milling of stoichiometric amounts of Bi2O3 and Fe2O3 followed by isothermal annealing at 973 K resulted in formation of the mixture of BiFeO3, Bi2Fe4O9, sillenite and hematite. After separate milling of individual Bi2O3 and Fe2O3 powders, mixing, further milling and thermal processing, the amount of desired BiFeO3 pure phase was significantly increased (from 70 to 90 %, as roughly estimated). From Mössbauer spectra, the hyperfine interaction parameters of the desired BiFeO3 compound, paramagnetic impurities of Bi2Fe4O9 and sillenite were determined. The main conclusion is that the lowest amount of impurities was obtained for BiFeO3 with 3 % excess of Bi2O3, which was sintered at 1023 K. However, in the case of mechanical activation, the pure phase formed at a temperature by 50 K lower as compared to solid-state sintering temperature. X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that for both sintered and mechanically activated BiFeO3 compounds, thermal treatment at elevated temperature led to a partial eliminating of the paramagnetic impurities.

ash, rice husk ash and fly ash. Construction of Building Materials [online] May, 2008. Volume 22, Issue 5, pp. 932-938. [cited 10.05.2012]. Accessible from < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061806003503 >. [4] MARJANOVIĆ, N., KOMLJENOVIĆ, M., BAŠČAREVIĆ, Z., NIKOLIĆ, V. 2014. Improving reactivity of fly ash and properties of ensuing geopolymers through mechanical activation. Construction and Building Materials [online] 25.02.2014. Volume 57, pp.151-162. [cited 10.05.2015]. Accessible from < http

Abstract

In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with ultra-high crystalline structure have been prepared by mechanothermal (MT) method. The novel super nanostructure is introduced for the first time as an extraordinary fullerene-carbon based material which, due to its special electronic and mechanical properties, can be used to construct unique building blocks for nanoengineering. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder has been obtained by mechanical activation under Ar atmosphere. Finally, the mechanically activated product is heat-treated at 1350 °C for 3–4 h under an Ar gas flow. However, the crystallite size and crystallinity degree of the MWCNTs increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

Abstract

This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn 3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

Abstract

In this paper, three BaTiO3 powders of various particle size distributions were obtained as a result of mechanical activation in the mixer mill. Green barium titanate pellets and cylindrical specimens were fabricated by both uniaxial and isostatic pressing methods. As a result of the application of different maximal sintering temperatures, the obtained materials were characterized by various average grain sizes: 0.8 μm, 20 μm and 31.0 μm. The basic properties of sintered pellets and cylinders were determined and the influence of materials average grain size on their Young’s modulus and compressive strength were determined through compression tests in a uniaxial testing machine, Zwick/Roell Z100. The elastic properties were similar for tested materials with a different grain size. However, the microstructure of BaTiO3 strongly influenced the compressive strength.

Abstract

The paper presents a new model of the mechanism of mechanocatalysis and tribocatalysis. The reason for the increase in heterogeneous catalysis effect after mechanical activation of a catalyst has not been fully understood yet. There is no known theory, which would explain the mechanism of the influence of mechanical energy introduced to catalyst particles on the rate of chemical reaction. All existing theories are based on Arrhenius equation and assume that catalysts increase reaction rate due to decreasing of activation energy E a. We hypothesize that both for standard and catalyzed heterogeneous reactions the same E a (real activation energy) is needed to trigger the reaction processes and the catalytic effect is the result of energy introduced to the reaction system, its accumulation by a catalyst and then emission of high flux of energy to the space near the catalyst particles. This energy emitted by molecules of reagents can reach a value equal to the value of E a at lower ambient temperature than it would result from Arrhenius equation. This hypothesis is based on α i model described in previous papers by Kajdas and Kulczycki as well as the results of tribochemical research described by Hong Liang et al., which demonstrate that the reaction rate is higher than that resulting from temperature.