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. In the early 1990s, another system for describing the phenological development of perennial forage grasses has been developed by Moore et al. (1991) . Furthermore, they recommended using the mean stage by count (MSC), introduced by Kalu and Fick (1981) for alfalfa, as a numerical maturity index for quantifying the developmental morphology of a population of tillers. A random sample of tillers should be collected from the sward and each tiller classified according to its developmental stage, and the MSC value is then calculated as the weighted mean stage. A close

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the transformation of humic substances during composting of biomass of energetic plants and municipal solid waste. The type of the organic material to be composted and the type of technology used affect the course of the humic substances transformation and formation of compost maturity parameters. Compost produced from the mixture of energetic willow and hay biomass contained humic substances with higher share of low-molecular fractions and lower share of humic acids in total organic carbon than those produced from municipal solid wastes. Obtained results also showed that insoluble alkali fraction plays an important role in humification process by its convertion to a new humic substances. Share of humic and fulvic fractions in relation to the total organic carbon appears to be reliable indicator of composting as a process of enhancing organic matter humification.

Zoology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences BASSUS, W. (1962): Untersuchungen uber die Nematodenfauna mitteldeutscher Waldboden. Wiss Z Humboldt-Univ Berlin Math- Nat R 11, 145 - 177 BJØRNLUND, L., VESTERGÅRD, M., JOHANSSON, S., NYBORG, M., STEFFENSEN, L., CHRISTENSEN, S. (2002): Nematode communities of natural and managed beech forests - a pilot survey. Pedobiologia, 46: 53 - 62. DOI:10.1078/0031-4056-00113 BONGERS, T. (1990): The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia 83

[1] Barbez, D. (1982): Bestrijding en controle van brandnetelblad bij hop. Agricontact, 118: 1–4 [2] Bongers, T. (1990): The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia, 83: 14–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00324627 [3] Bongers, T., Korthals, G. (1995): The behavior of maturity index and plant parasite index under enriched conditions. Nematologica, 41: 286 [4] Bongers, T., Van Der Meulen, H., Korthals, G. (1997): Inverse relationships between the nematode maturity index and plant parasite

. H. C. (2003): Effects of long-term crop management on nematode trophic levels other than plant feeders disappear after 1 year of disruptive soil management. Appl. Soil Ecol., 23: 223–235 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(03)00047-7 [5] Bongers, T. (1990): The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia, 83: 14–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00324627 [6] Bongers, T. (1999): The maturity index, the evolution of nematode life history traits, adaptive radiation and cp- scaling. Plant Soil, 212

] Bewley, J. D., Black, M., Halmer, P. (2006): The Encyclopedia of Seeds. Science, Technology and Uses. London, UK: CABI International, 40 pp. [4] Bongers, T. (1990): The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia. 83(1): 14–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00324627 [5] Bongers, T., Korthals, G. (1995): The behaviour of MI and PPI under enriched condition. Nematologica, 41(3): 286 [6] Bowen, K. L., Hagan, A. K., Campbell, H. L., Nightengale, S. (2008): Effect of southern root-knot nematode

[1] Bongers, T. (1990): The maturity index: An ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia, 83: 14–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00324627 [2] Bongers, T., Meulen, H., Korthals, G. (1997): Inverse relationship between the nematode maturity index and plant parasite index under enriched nutrient conditions. Appl. Soil Ecol., 6: 195–199 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(96)00136-9 [3] Burns, N. C. (1971): Soil pH effects on nematode populations associated with soybean. J. Nematol., 3: 238–245 [4] Clark, M. S

[1] Bongers, T. (1990): The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia, 83: 14–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00324627 [2] Bongers, T., Korthals, G. (1995): The behaviour of MI and PPI under enriched conditions. Nematologica, 41: 286 [3] Háněl, L. (1994): Soil nematodes (Nematode) of some localities in the Krkonoše Mts. Opera corcont., 31: 105–113 [4] Háněl, L. (1996): Composition and seasonal changes of soil nematode community in a South Bohemian meadow. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 60: 103

References BAKONYI, G., NAGY, P., KÁDÁR, I. (2003): Long-term effects of heavy metals and microelements on nematode assemblage. Toxicol. Lett., 140 - 141: 391 - 401. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00035-3 BONGERS, T., KORTHALS, G.W. (1993) The Maturity Index, an instrument to monitor changes in the nematode community structure. Summaries of the 45th International Symposium on Crop Protection. Ghent, Belgium, pp 80 BONGERS, T., ILIEVA-MAKULEC, K., EKSCHMITT, K. (2001): Acute sensitivity of nematode taxa to CuSO4 and relationships with feeding type and life

maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia, 83: 14–19 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00324627 [4] Bongers, T. (1999): The Maturity Index, the evolution of nematode life history traits, adaptive radiation and cpscaling. Plant Soil, 212: 13–22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004571900425 [5] Bongers, T., Meulen, H., Korthals, G. (1997): Inverse relationship between the nematode maturity index and plant parasite index under enriched nutrient conditions. Appl. Soil Ecol., 6: 195–199 http://dx.doi.org/10