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., 404: 330-335. Choi T. (2011). Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits spontaneous oocyte fragmentation and delays inactivation of maturation promoting factor (MPF) during the prolonged culture of ovulated murine oocytes in vitro. Cytotechnology, 63: 279-284. Gitika B., Sai Ram M., Sharma S.K., Ilavazhagan G., Banerjee P.K. (2006). Quercetin protects C6 glial cells from oxidative stress induced by tertiary-butylhydroperoxide. Free Radic. Res., 40: 95-102. Ishige K., Schubert D., Sagara Y. (2001). Flavonoids protect neuronal cells from oxidative stress by three distinct

meiotic maturation. ReprodFertil Dev. 2015:223-233 [16] Pangas SA, Li X, Robertson EJ, Matzuk MM. Premature luteinization and cumulus cell defects in ovarian-specific Smad4 knock out mice. MolEndocrinol. 2006; 20(6): 1406-22. [17] Rajamannan NM, Subramaniam M, Abraham TP, Vasile VC, Ackerman MJ, Monroe DG, Chew TL, Spelsberg TC. TGFbeta inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) and cardiac hypertrophy: discovery and characterization of a novel signaling pathway. J Cell Biochem. 2007; 100: 315-325. [18] Sirard C, de la Pompa JL, Elia A, Itie A, Mirtsos C, Cheung A, Hahn S, Wakeham

References 1. Lee JH, Kang YG, Lee KS, Nam JH. Maturation of cervical vertebrae in relation to menarche. Korean J Orthod. 2009;39:28-35. 2. Cho S, Hwang C. Skeletal maturation evaluation using mandibular third molar development in adolescents. Korean J Orthod. 2009;39(2):120-129. 3. Bishara SE. Textbook of orthodontics, Ed. Saunders, 2001, pp. 75-80. 4. Lamparski DG. Skeletal age assessment utilizing cervical vertebrae. Pittsburgh (PA): University of Pittsburgh, 1972, pp. 6-11. 5. Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J

. 2013;99(4):979-97; DOI:10.1016/j. fertnstert.2013.01.129. 4. Jamnongjit M, Hammes SR. Oocyte maturation: the coming of age of a germ cell. Semin Reprod Med. 2005;23(3):234-41;;DOI:10.1055/s-2005-872451. 5. Yuan Y, Krisher RL. In vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;825:183-98; DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-436-0_14. 6. Budna J, Celichowski P, Bryja A, Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska M, Jeseta M, Bukowska D, Antosik P, Brüssow KP, Bruska M, Nowicki M, Zabel M, Kempisty B. Significant down-regulation of „Biological Adhesion” genes in porcine oocytes after

References 1. Watson AJ. Oocyte cytoplasmic maturation: a key mediator of oocyte and embryo developmental competence. J Anim Sci 2007;85:E1-3; DOI:10.2527/jas.2006-432. 2. Agung B, Otoi T, Fuchimoto D, Senbon S, Onishi A, Nagai T. In vitro fertilization and development of porcine oocytes matured in follicular fluid. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:103–6. 3. Chang CL, Wang H-S, Soong Y-K, Huang SY, Pai SY, Hsu SYT. Regulation of oocyte and cumulus cell interactions by intermedin/adrenomedullin 2. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43193–203; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.297358. 4. Palma GA

(1): 1-2. 8. Leigh-Brown S, Enriquez JA, Odom DT. Nuclear transcription factors in mammalian mitochondria. Genome Biol. 2010; 11(7): 1-9. 9. Cotterill M, Harris SE, Collado Fernandez E, Lu J, Huntriss JD, Campbell BK, et al. The activity and copy number of mitochondrial DNA in ovine oocytes throughout oogenesis in vivo and during oocyte maturation in vitro. Mol Hum Reprod. 2013; 19(7): 444-450. 10. Dumollard R, Duchen M, Carroll J. The role of mitochondrial function in the oocyte and embryo. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2007; 77: 21-49. 11. Scarpulla RC. Nuclear control of

:// 16. Glew RH, Ayaz FA, Millson M, Huang HS, Chuang LT, Sanz C et al. Changes in sugars, acids and fatty acids in naturally parthenocarpic date plum persimmon ( Diospyros lotus L.) fruit during maturation and ripening. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2005; 221:113-118. doi: 17. Schulz M, Borges GSC, Gonzaga LV, Seraglio Olivo SKT, Azevedo IS, Nehring P et al. Chemical composition, bioactive compounds and anti-oxidant capacity of juçara fruit ( Euterpe edulis Martius) during ripening. Food Res Int


The mammalian oocytes maturation is the compound process that involves morphological and molecular changes. These modifications include storage of macromolecules, which are crucial for proteins biosynthesis during periimplantation stages of embryo development. This study was aimed to investigate the genes expression profile encoding macromolecules important for regulation of proper porcine oocytes maturation.

The porcine oocytes were collected from large ovarian follicles and analyzed both before and after in vitro maturation (IVM). Additionally, to check the developmental competence status, brilliant crezyl blue test (BCB) was performed. The obtained cDNA was used for biotin labeling and fragmentation by AffymetrixGeneChip® WT Terminal Labeling and Hybridization (Affymetrix). The preliminary analysis of the scanned chips was performed using AffymetrixGeneAtlasTM Operating Software. The created CEL files were imported into downstream data analysis software.

In results, we found expression of 419 different genes, 379 genes were down-regulated and 40 genes were up-regulated in relation to the oocyte transcriptome before in vitro procedure. We observed up-regulation of all genes involved in “positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process” before IVM as compared to transcriptional profile analyzed after IVM.

In conclusion, we suggested that genes encoding proteins involved in macromolecule metabolism are important for achieving of porcine oocytes maturational stage. Moreover, the “activity of macromolecules metabolism” is much more increased in immature oocytes.

B., Gołąb S., Matusik A. 2003. Wiek menarche a wielkość dorastania wysokości ciała dziewcząt. Pediatria Polska 2:111–5. Ziemilska A. 1985. Effects of intensive gymnastic training on growth and maturation of children. Biology of Sport 4:279–94.


The histological changes observed in the pituitary corticotrophs, gonadotrophs, adrenocortical tissues and testicular cells in M. vittatus (Bloch, 1794) have been studies during growth, maturation and spawning phases. The studies based on the changes observed in the cell types, shape and size of the cells of the adrenocortical tissues, testes and the overall percentage of gonadotroph (GTH) and thyrotroph (TSH) cells of the pituitary. However, during growth phase, in proximal pars distalis (PPD) the considerable increment of GTH and TSH have been observed having intense aniline blue stain. The corticotrophs (ACTH) also showed significant accumulation of fuchsinophilic cytoplasmic granules. The cytoplasmic features and the architecture of the interrenal cells were well coincident with the increase of different spermatogenic cells. During the maturation phase dense granulation in the GTH and TSH cells appeared to be concomitant with the spermiation. The amount of cytoplasmic granules of the interrenal cells increased than chromaffin cells and was well coincidence with the increase of spermatids and spermatozoa. The hyperactive and vacuolated features of the interrenal cells during spawning phase appeared to be concomitant with the final process of spermiation.