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Readers of Croatian daily newspapers and news websites are very frequently faced with Croatian phrases which have been modelled on English templates by literal, word-for-word translation, a phenomenon known as calque. This research shows that even highly proficient Croatian speakers of English as a second language (L2) are sometimes not able to fully understand the calques used in Croatian mass media unless they are familiar with the meaning of their source template in English. The research is done by way of an experiment built in PsychoPy (). The implications of this research could be of special interest to persons involved in designing media texts, professional and student translators, as well as to mass media consumers.

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(Warsaw). CHŁOPECKI J. (2002), Świat fabuły i świat akcji (The World of Narration and The World of Action) [in:] G. Kurczewski (ed.), Meandry tradycji, zakręty ponowoczesności (Meanders of Tradition, The Crossroads of Post-Modernity), Wydawnictwo WSIiZ, Rzeszów. DEMBKOWSKI S., ELDRIDGE F., HUNTER I. (2014), Coaching kadry kierowniczej (Coaching for the Managerial Staff), Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa (Warsaw). GOBAN-KLAS T. (2015), Media i komunikowanie masowe (Mass media and Mass Communication, PWN, Warszawa (Warsaw). GOLKA M. (2008), Bariery w komunikowaniu i

PLURALISM OF MASS MEDIA AS A CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE Michal Bartoň1 Faculty of Law, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic email: BARTOŇ, Michal. Pluralism of mass media as a constitutional principle. Inter- national and Comparative Law Review, 2012, Vol. 12., No. 1, pp. 57–67. DOI: 10.1515/iclr-2016-0078. Abstract: Th e article deals with following issues: - plurality of mass media as a freedom of speech principle, - regulation of mass media and its two faces: regu- lation as a way of limitation of freedom of expression and

: Knopf. KEYES, R. (2004): The Post-Truth Era: Dishonesty and Deception in Contemporary Life. New York: Museum Martin Press. MARCUSE, H. (1991): One-Dimensional Men: Studies in Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. London: Routledge. MROZOWSKI, M. (2007): Media masowe [Mass media]. Tarnów: ASPRA-JR. SCHOPENHAUER, A. (2004): The Art of Always Being Right. Thirty Eight Ways to Win When You are Defeated. New York: Gibson Square Books. SULLIVAN, E. (2001): The Concise Book of Lying. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. THIELE-DOHRMANN, K. (1975): Zur Psychologie des

425 L I T H U A N I A N A N N U A L S T R AT E G I C R E V I E W 2017-2018 Volume 16 ISSN 2335-870X Gintaras Šumskas*, Irmina Matonytė** General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania*** Impact of the Mass Media on the Assessment of Military Threats**** On the grounds of the theories of the use of the mass media, the authors analyse concepts and as- sessments of military threats. The analysis is based on the data of representative public opinion polls (conducted in spring 2016 by Vilmorus, N = 1004). The research shows that certain qualities of in

101 L I T H U A N I A N A N N U A L S T R AT E G I C R E V I E W 2016-2017 Volume 15 ISSN 2335-870X Virgilijus Pugačiauskas* The General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania Lithuania’s Images in Russian Mass Media after the Annexation of Crimea One of the distinctive features of Russia’s confrontation with the West over the 2014–2016 period is the intensification of Russian propaganda both in foreign countries and within the state. Lithuania, whose relations with a major neighbour were not normalized, and which openly supported Ukraine

odrzucenie społeczne [HIV/AIDS. Alienation, social support and exclusion]. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. McClosky, H. & Schaar, J.H. (1965). Psychological dimensions of anomy. American Sociological Review , 30, 14-40. McQuail, D. (1994). Mass communication theory. London: Sage. Mrozowski, M. (2001). Media masowe. Władza, rozrywka i biznes [Mass media. Power, entertainment and business]. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA-JR. Neal, A.G. & Seeman, M. (1964). Organization and powerlessness: A test of the mediation hypothesis. American Sociological Review

Schweiz. Bern: Eidgenössische Kommission gegen Rassismus EKR. Ettinger, Patrik und Kurt Imhof. 2011. Ethnisierung des Politischen und Problematisierung religiöser Differenz. Schlussbericht NFP 58 «Religionsgemeinschaften, Staat und Gesellschaft». Zürich: fög – Forschungsbereich Öffentlichkeit und Gesellschaft, Universität Zürich, (06.09.2018). Ettinger, Patrik und Linards Udris. 2009. Islam as a Threat? Problematisation of Muslims in the Mass Media and Effects on the


The use of mass communication in the field of foreign language teaching is not a new phenomenon, because traditional media have been in use in this area for a few decades. Nowadays, however, several tendencies confirming the scale of this phenomenon can be observed. Mass media, and new media in particular, are used both in the process of self-education and as an important tool used by foreign language teachers. Technological progress, the communication revolution, the spread of the Internet, and the development of new media and mobile technologies offer modern and more effective methods of language education. This article reviews the conditions relating to the relationship between mass media and language learning, taking into account the possibility of using one of the key functions of mass communication, namely its educational function. The authors, using literature analysis, defined and analyzed the causes of specific symbiosis between media tools and technologies as well as the methodology used in the field of foreign language teaching.

References [1] Centrul pentru Jurnalism Independent (2004). Structurile de proprietate şi influenţa lor asupra independenţei şi pluralismului în mass media. România. Republica Moldova aus: Media ownership and its impact on media independence and pluralism. Ljubljana: Peace Institute, Institute for Contemporany Social and Political Studies. [2] Active Watch - Agenţia de Monitorizare a Presei (2008). Evaluarea nivelului de competenţă în mass media, Bucureşti. [3] Martin, R. Ulmanu, A.B. (2016). De ce şi cum se clatină TVR. Mărturii din interiorul televiziunii