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Thickness Optimisation of Textiles Subjected to Heat and Mass Transport during Ironing

://planetcalc.com/2167/ [9] Korycki, R., Sensitivity oriented shape optimization of textile composites during coupled heat and mass transport. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol.53, 2385-2392, 2010 [10] Korycki R., Shape Optimization and Shape Identification for Transient Diffusion Problems in Textile Structures. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 15, 60,43-49,2007 [11] Korycki, R., Shape optimization in oppositely directed coupled diffusion within composite structures, Struct. Multidisc. Optim., 39, 283-296, 2009 [12] Kostowski, E., Heat transfer (in Polish

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Photoinduced Mass Transport in Liquids

Photoinduced Mass Transport in Liquids

Optically induced changes in the concentration distribution of Fluorescein and DCM dye solutions were investigated, with their dependences on the laser intensity and optical properties of solvent examined. In the experiments we used a thin solution layer (~70 μm) between two glass plates, which was exposed to CW laser radiation (γ = 523 nm). Under intensive laser illumination a transport of dissolved dye was observed. The distribution of solution concentration was analyzed using a low-intensity CW laser focused beam. The spectroscopy methods were employed to reveal differences between the absorption spectra of the solution before and after exposure. The solution concentration was proved to change around the exposed spot.

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Effect of macromolecular mass transport in microgravity protein crystallization

growth of crystals of higher quality, which can be achieved using microgravity. The capillary counter diffusion method is an efficient technique to investigate diffusion-limited mass transport phenomena in macromolecular crystallization ( García-Ruiz et al., 2001b ; García-Ruiz, 2003 ). This investigation addresses the following hypothesis: Improved quality of microgravity-grown protein crystals is the result of two macromolecular characteristics that exist in a buoyancy-free, diffusion-dominated solution – slower crystal growth rates, due to slower protein

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Stratigraphic and tectonic control of deep-water scarp accumulation in Paleogene synorogenic basins: a case study of the Súľov Conglomerates (Middle Váh Valley, Western Carpathians)

: Tertiary tectonic evolution of the Pannonian Basin system and neighbouring orogens: a new synthesis of paleostress data. In: Durand B., Jolivet L., Horváth F. and Séranne M. (Eds.): The Mediterranean Basins: Tertiary Extension within the Alpine Orogen. Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. 156, 295-334. Gamberi F., Rovere M. & Marani M. 2011: Mass-transport evolution in a tectonically active margin (Gioia Basin, Southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea). Mar. Geol. 279, 98-110. Gani R.M. 2004: From turbid to lucid: a straightforward approach to sediment

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Numerical Optimisation of Thickness of Composite Bonnet for Neonates

. (2010). Sensitivity oriented shape optimization of textile composites during coupled heat and mass transport, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53, 2385-2392. [16] Korycki R., Krucińska I. (2014). Sensitivity analysis and thickness optimization of composite bonnet for neonates, VII Symposium Composites and Layer Structures, 33-34, Wrocław. [17] Li, Y. (2001). The science of clothing comfort, Textile Progress 15; 1,2. [18] Sahni, R., Schulze, K. (2011). Temperature control in newborn infants. Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, Polin R

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Application of analytic element method in hydrogeology

Abstract

The analytic element method (AEM) has been successfully used in practice worldwide for many years. This method provides the possibility of fast preliminary quantitative analysis of the hydrogeological systems or boundary conditions of the numerical models, as it is shown in the case study of groundwater source of the city of Vrbas. The AEM is also applicable for the initial analysis of a hydrogeological system, which is of particular importance in case of excess pollution that cannot be predicted where it could happen. One example of the application of the AEM is presented in this article. The analytical model is calibrated based on the measured data from several drilled monitoring wells, and this was the base for the numerical model of the contaminant transport. In this case, the AEM enabled the quick access to information on the hydrogeological system and effective response to excess pollution.

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Visualisation of Liquid Flow Phenomena in Textiles Applied as a Wound Dressing

Abstract

The aim of this work was to visualise liquid transport in textiles. Knowledge of the transport phenomena allows for the design of textiles for various applications, e.g., comfortable to wear filtration and wound dressing. To visualise liquid transport through textiles, three test methods were explored. The first one was the high spatial resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique (also referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy). It allowed the observation of the pathways of liquid flow through textiles. In the second method, a thermographic camera was used to record temperature changes and assess the liquid flow in the textile. The third method was using a high-speed video camera to observe the liquid transport within the textile. Two types of textiles were studied: a double-layer knitted fabric and a woven fabric, both made from hydrophilic and hydrophobic fibres (cotton, viscose and polypropylene). The knitted fabrics were tested as a new type of wound dressing, which trans

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The Modeling of Nitrogen Mass Transport in CoCr Alloys

Abstract

The kinetics of plasma nitriding of CoCr alloy below temperatures of nitrides formation and mechanisms of nitrogen penetration are analyzed by proposed kinetic modeling in this article. Proposed nitrogen diffusion model is based on the trapping – detrapping (TD) model and developed taking into account the effect of the concentration dependent diffusivity of nitrogen, nitrogen adsorption on the surface of alloy and surface swelling process. The model indicates the influence of chromium atoms to nitrogen atoms diffusivity. The model consists of time and depth dependent diffusion, which is described by a partial differential equation, and it is solved by using Crank – Nicolson finite difference method. By fitting of experimental nitrogen depth profiles, it is shown that nitrogen diffusion coefficient varies with nitrogen concentration according to Einstein-Smoluchowski relation. Nitrogen depth profiles in plasma nitrided medical grade CoCr alloy (ISO 5831 – 12) at T = 400 °C for 1, 4 and 20 hours calculated on the basis of this model are in good agreement with experimental nitrogen profiles. Furthermore, the swelling process is showed and analyzed, derived the dependency of swelling rate on nitriding duration – the swelling rate is inversely proportional to the square root of nitriding duration. The obtained diffusion coefficient value and the swelling process rates satisfy the experimental data form Ref. The derived model explains physical processes during plasma nitriding and allows obtaining nitrogen depth profiles for any requisite nitriding duration.

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Biodegradable polylactide and thermoplastic starch blends as drug release device – mass transfer study

Abstract

Four different compositions of polylactide/thermoplastic starch blends (PLA/TPS blends) for application as drug carriers were examined. Initially, using cyanocobalamin (1.355 kDa) as a model compound, the blend with the highest starch content (wt. 60%) was selected for further research of mass transfer phenomenon. In this case, different concentrations of acetaminophen (0.151 kDa), doxorubicin hydrochloride (0.580 kDa) and cyanocobalamin (1.355 kDa) were used for determination of particular releasing profiles. Besides from the comparative analysis of obtained results, the values of the overall mass transfer coefficient (K) were calculated for each of tested drug molecules. Depending on the size and properties of used compound, determined values of the coefficient range from 10−11 to 10−13 m/s. Based on these outcomes, it could be stated that PLA/TPS blend selected in preliminary research, seems to be preferred material for fabrication of long-term drug delivery systems, which could be successfully applied for example in anti-cancer therapy.

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Slide origin of breccia lenses in the Cambrian of the North China Platform: new insight into mass transport in an epeiric sea

Abstract

An oolite in the Furongian (Late Cambrian) Chaomidian Formation in Shandong Province, China, which was deposited on the North China Platform in an epeiric sea, contains several limestone breccia lenses of various dimensions (centimetres to decimetres thick and decimetres to more than 10 metres in length) in an E-trending section. The oolite, which is approximately 40 cm thick, was originally thicker, as indicated by a planar truncation surface that formed by wave abrasion. The breccia lenses in this oolite are generally mound-shaped with a flat base and a convex top. The western margin of the lenses is commonly rounded whereas the eastern margin commonly has a tail (consisting of a rapidly eastwards thinning breccia horizon that gradually ends in a horizon of isolated clasts). Some of the breccia lenses are underlain by a shear zone.

The formation of the breccia lenses cannot be easily explained by normal depositional or deformational processes. It is concluded that the lenses represent fragments of a partly consolidated layer, consisting of both rounded and angular platy clasts, which slid down over a very gently inclined sedimentary surface which acted – possibly together with a water film – as a lubricant layer. During transport, the layer broke up into several discrete bodies that formed small ‘highs’ at the sedimentary surface of the shallow epeiric sea. Subsequently, waves partially eroded the lenses, mostly at their margins, producing their mound-shaped form.

Sliding of blocks is known from a wide variety of environments in the sedimentary record; however, this is the first description of the sliding of blocks in an epeiric sea. This indicates that such a low-relief submarine carbonate setting is, like its siliciclastic counterparts, susceptible to this process.

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