Kukal Z and Pošmourný K, 2005. Přírodní katastrofy a rizika. Ministerstvo životního prostředí České republiky. Praha. 51 pp. (in Czech)
 Lang A, Moya J, Corominas J, Schrott L and Dikau R, 1999. Classic and new dating methods for assessing the temporal occurrence of massmovements. Geomorphology 30(1–2): 33–52, DOI 10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00043-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00043-4
 Laxton SC and Smith DJ, 2009. Dendrochronological reconstruction of snow
polskich Karpat fliszowych (Dendrogeomorphic analysis of massmovements in the area of Polish flysch Carpathians). Geologia Kwartalnik AGH 26: 141–171 (in Polish).
 Lang A, Corominas J, Schrott L and Dikau R, 1999. Classic and new dating methods for assessing the temporal occurrence of massmovements. Geomorphology 30(1–2): 33–52, DOI 10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00043-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(99)00043-4
 Koprowski M, Winchester V and Zielski A, 2010. Tree reactions and dune movements: Slowinski
Michał Zatorski, Krzysztof Buczek and Paweł Franczak
Alexandrowicz S.W., 1985, Subfosylna malakofauna z osuwiska w Piwnicznej, Polskie Karpaty Fliszowe (Subfossil malacofauna from the landslide in Piwniczna, Polish Flysch Carpathians), Folia Quatern. 56: 79-100 (in Polish, English summary).
Alexandrowicz S.W., 1996, Holoceńskie fazy intensyfikacji ruchów osuwiskowych w Karpatach (Stages of increased massmovements in the Carpathians during the Holocene), Geologia 22(3): 223-263 (in Polish, English summary).
Alexandrowicz Z., Margielewski W., 2010
Applied research in geomorphology includes landform analysis and evaluation from a specific perspective of scientific significance and global relevance. In this paper, landform diversity of Seoraksan, Republic of Korea, a UNESCO World Heritage candidate, is compared with geomorphic characteristics of two World Heritage properties in China, Huangshan and Sanqingshan. Seoraksan represents an almost complete mountain geomorphic system of considerable contemporary dynamics, with outstanding scenery and spectacular landforms such as domes, fins, bedrock channels, waterfalls, and inherited block fields. It is argued that Seoraksan contains outstanding scientific and aesthetic values, not present at the Chinese properties, offering scope for successful nomination.
Małgorzata Wistuba, Ireneusz Malik and Marek Krąpiec
eccentricity. The pattern probably records constant balancing of trees maintaining a near-vertical position on slopes.
All the statistical parameters of eccentricity suggest that the impact of the prevailing wind on tree growth is more severe than the impact of landslide activity. The severity of wind impact on tree growth indicates that it should be carefully taken into account in dendrogeomorphic research as it can influence the results of dating. On the other hand, the possible influence of massmovements should also be considered in dendroecological studies of wind
Tomasz Karasiewicz, Lucyna Tobojko, Marcin Świtoniak, Kinga Milewska and Sebastian Tyszkowski
further evolution through anthropopressure (see Zgłobicki 2008 ).
The genesis of these forms is most often associated with the late glacial period but one must not forget their subsequent transformation by rinsing, erosion, massmovements, and even in many cases human activity (e.g. Churska 1965 ; Twardy 2000 , 2003; Smolska 2007 , 2008 ; Majewski 2008 , 2013; Zgłobicki 2008 ; Paluszkiewicz 2011 , 2014 , 2016 and many others). Erosional and denudation forms have excellent potential for the reconstruction of erosion, sedimentation, climate and soil processes
Christoph Daxer, Jasper Moernaut, Timothy Taylor, Jean Nicolas Haas and Michael Strasser
. Boisvert (eds.), Submarine MassMovements and their Consequences. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 531-538). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0093-2_58
Lowe, D. R., 1976. Grain Flow and Grain Flow Deposits. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 46, 188-199. https://doi.org/10.1306/212F6EF1-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D
Lowe, D. R., 1982. Sediment Gravity Flows: II Depositional Models with Special Reference to the Deposits of High-Density Turbidity Currents. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 52 (1), 279-297. https://doi.org/10.1306/212F7F31-2B24-11D7
Paola Di Leo, Dario Gioia, Claudio Martino, Anna Pappalardo and Marcello Schiattarella
Geomorphological, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence of Pleistocene weathering conditions in the southern Italian Apennines
Pleistocene weathering, uplift rates, and mass movements have been studied and correlated in a key-area of the Italian southern Apennines. The study area is the Melandro River valley, developed in a tectonically-controlled Quaternary intermontane basin of the axial zone of the chain. The goal of this paper is to assess ages and geomorphic features of two paleo-landslides and to relate them to values of uplift rates and the climate conditions in the axial zone of the chain during the Pleistocene. Uplift rates have been estimated using elevation and age of flat erosional land surfaces. In the southern area of the basin, the landscape features a wide paleo-landslide which can be ascribed to the upper part of the Lower Pleistocene on the basis of relationships with Quaternary deposits and land surfaces. Another paleo-landslide, in the northern sector of the basin, can be referred to the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene. The correlation between the ages of the two landslides and the temporal trend of the uplift rates allowed us to hypothesize that mass movements occurred in response to uplift peaks that destabilized slopes. Additionally, deciphering weathering conditions by means of the analysis of mineralogical and geochemical signals from landslide deposits and weathered horizons allowed assessment of changes in paleoclimate scenarios during the Pleistocene. The deep weathering was probably caused by the onset of warm-humid climate conditions, which may have acted as a further factor triggering landslide movements in an area already destabilized by the rapid uplift.
Paraglacial Modifications of Glacial Sediments Over Millennial to Decadal Time-Scales in the High Arctic (Billefjorden, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard)
The paper discuss the morphologic expression and sedimentological record left after the operation of glacial episodes in the area of Billefjorden, central Spitsbergen, in the period of Late Pleistocene ice-sheet development and in the last advance of glaciers in the Little Ice Age (LIA) around the beginning of the 20th century. No evidence is found for other Holocene glacier advances. Paraglacial activity during several millennia erased the surface expression of Pleistocene glacial deposits, leaving a widespread set of reworked material that adopts features of slope, fluvial, aeolian or littoral environments. Glacial features generated during the past century, and still forming in front of retreating glaciers, undergo intense paraglacial modifications limited to the maximum depth of permafrost thaw during the summer. They deliver vast amounts of erosion-susceptible material from mass movements on buried ice fragments, through the glaciofluvial system to aeolian and littoral activity.
The morphological evolution of a carbonate fault line scarp from southern Italy, generated by transpressional faulting and evolved by slope replacement, has been reconstructed. 14C dating of faulted slope deposits (ages included between 18 ka and ∼8 ka BP) have been performed to constrain the Late Pleistocene — Holocene evolution of that scarp. Long-to short-term denudation rates have been also evaluated for the understanding of the mountain front origin. The slope shows well-defined triangular facets combined with the presence of N-S-striking mountainward-dipping fault planes. The envelope of the slope foot appears slightly curved in a planimetric view and shows an E-W-trending offset in its southern part, making such a feature quite different from the recurrent rectilinear fault scarps, often related to normal faulting. Morphostructural analysis showed that: i) the oldest displacement was generated by a fault with a reverse component of movement; ii) the slope represents an inherited feature, only recently exhumed, and developed starting from a high-angle curved surface; iii) the upper Pleistocene — Holocene extensional faulting has only affected the slope foot and associated waste deposits, causing a series of collateral morphological effects, as fluvial cut of preexisting valleys and the genesis of conspicuous mass movements.