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Readers of Croatian daily newspapers and news websites are very frequently faced with Croatian phrases which have been modelled on English templates by literal, word-for-word translation, a phenomenon known as calque. This research shows that even highly proficient Croatian speakers of English as a second language (L2) are sometimes not able to fully understand the calques used in Croatian mass media unless they are familiar with the meaning of their source template in English. The research is done by way of an experiment built in PsychoPy (). The implications of this research could be of special interest to persons involved in designing media texts, professional and student translators, as well as to mass media consumers.

in ExELL


The events of the year 2020 have had and heavy impact on the whole world. For the first time, each of us felt that we were part of this great globalised family. For the first time, the events that happened on a strict continent were directly related to other continents’ inhabitants. The new words entered to be a part of our vocabulary, and the new way of behaviour have been performed. On the positive side, we could mention that countries have been discovered for people with low geographical culture and the existence of certain professions and certain hospital departments have been discovered. The role of mass-media has been decisive in transmitting the news about Covid 19 in various ways. The article aims to show the role of mass media on the headlines of high ranking newspapers in UK Germany and Italy by analysing the weight of the words. The used methodology was the analysis to analyse the headlines of high ranking newspapers in UK Germany and Italy. Through content analysis, it was possible to individuate how the news-papers attract the audience through the headlines and how they contributed to keeping up the attention and the stress among social reality.

(Warsaw). CHŁOPECKI J. (2002), Świat fabuły i świat akcji (The World of Narration and The World of Action) [in:] G. Kurczewski (ed.), Meandry tradycji, zakręty ponowoczesności (Meanders of Tradition, The Crossroads of Post-Modernity), Wydawnictwo WSIiZ, Rzeszów. DEMBKOWSKI S., ELDRIDGE F., HUNTER I. (2014), Coaching kadry kierowniczej (Coaching for the Managerial Staff), Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa (Warsaw). GOBAN-KLAS T. (2015), Media i komunikowanie masowe (Mass media and Mass Communication, PWN, Warszawa (Warsaw). GOLKA M. (2008), Bariery w komunikowaniu i

PLURALISM OF MASS MEDIA AS A CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE Michal Bartoň1 Faculty of Law, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic email: BARTOŇ, Michal. Pluralism of mass media as a constitutional principle. Inter- national and Comparative Law Review, 2012, Vol. 12., No. 1, pp. 57–67. DOI: 10.1515/iclr-2016-0078. Abstract: Th e article deals with following issues: - plurality of mass media as a freedom of speech principle, - regulation of mass media and its two faces: regu- lation as a way of limitation of freedom of expression and

: Knopf. KEYES, R. (2004): The Post-Truth Era: Dishonesty and Deception in Contemporary Life. New York: Museum Martin Press. MARCUSE, H. (1991): One-Dimensional Men: Studies in Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. London: Routledge. MROZOWSKI, M. (2007): Media masowe [Mass media]. Tarnów: ASPRA-JR. SCHOPENHAUER, A. (2004): The Art of Always Being Right. Thirty Eight Ways to Win When You are Defeated. New York: Gibson Square Books. SULLIVAN, E. (2001): The Concise Book of Lying. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. THIELE-DOHRMANN, K. (1975): Zur Psychologie des

odrzucenie społeczne [HIV/AIDS. Alienation, social support and exclusion]. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego. McClosky, H. & Schaar, J.H. (1965). Psychological dimensions of anomy. American Sociological Review , 30, 14-40. McQuail, D. (1994). Mass communication theory. London: Sage. Mrozowski, M. (2001). Media masowe. Władza, rozrywka i biznes [Mass media. Power, entertainment and business]. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA-JR. Neal, A.G. & Seeman, M. (1964). Organization and powerlessness: A test of the mediation hypothesis. American Sociological Review

Schweiz. Bern: Eidgenössische Kommission gegen Rassismus EKR. Ettinger, Patrik und Kurt Imhof. 2011. Ethnisierung des Politischen und Problematisierung religiöser Differenz. Schlussbericht NFP 58 «Religionsgemeinschaften, Staat und Gesellschaft». Zürich: fög – Forschungsbereich Öffentlichkeit und Gesellschaft, Universität Zürich, (06.09.2018). Ettinger, Patrik und Linards Udris. 2009. Islam as a Threat? Problematisation of Muslims in the Mass Media and Effects on the


The use of mass communication in the field of foreign language teaching is not a new phenomenon, because traditional media have been in use in this area for a few decades. Nowadays, however, several tendencies confirming the scale of this phenomenon can be observed. Mass media, and new media in particular, are used both in the process of self-education and as an important tool used by foreign language teachers. Technological progress, the communication revolution, the spread of the Internet, and the development of new media and mobile technologies offer modern and more effective methods of language education. This article reviews the conditions relating to the relationship between mass media and language learning, taking into account the possibility of using one of the key functions of mass communication, namely its educational function. The authors, using literature analysis, defined and analyzed the causes of specific symbiosis between media tools and technologies as well as the methodology used in the field of foreign language teaching.

References [1] Centrul pentru Jurnalism Independent (2004). Structurile de proprietate şi influenţa lor asupra independenţei şi pluralismului în mass media. România. Republica Moldova aus: Media ownership and its impact on media independence and pluralism. Ljubljana: Peace Institute, Institute for Contemporany Social and Political Studies. [2] Active Watch - Agenţia de Monitorizare a Presei (2008). Evaluarea nivelului de competenţă în mass media, Bucureşti. [3] Martin, R. Ulmanu, A.B. (2016). De ce şi cum se clatină TVR. Mărturii din interiorul televiziunii


In February 2015 the UK TV station Channel 4 started screening James Bluemel’s series “The Romanians Are Coming”, a three-part documentary film about “the lives of poor Romanian people who seek work in Great Britain, seen through the eyes of the British people”. This documentary provoked strong opposition from some Romanian politicians and mass media outlets. In the UK the reaction was a contrasting one: sympathy, understanding and compassion. We showed the series to three Romanian university classes in 2017-18 and the students largely had a negative reaction similar to that of those Romanian commentators. A standard content analysis of the film, however, suggests that it gives a positive image of Romanian immigrants in the UK. Despite this, our audiences tended to form a negative perception of the film. We attribute this disparity to the wording of its title activating two classical stereotypes: that Romanians are often Roma, and that poor people are a source of social problems. The film as a whole in fact projects an opposite message, but once these stereotypes have been activated the content is automatically perceived as negative.