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From the 4th – 7th of July 2016, the annual International Medieval Congress was held in Leeds, England. Among the many different sessions two specifically addressed historical European martial arts. The first session discussed and commented upon modern practices and interpretations of historical European martial arts, each paper being based on good practice and the proper criteria for academic research. The second session, in which this paper was presented, went more “behind the scenes”, discussing the importance of thorough analysis of the historical context which remains essential to forming a foundation for solid hypotheses and interpretations.
This article discusses and sheds light upon Danish historical martial art during the reign of the Danish King Christian IV (r.1588 to 1648). At this point in time Europe consisted of many small principalities in addition to a few larger states and kingdoms. Thoughts and ideas could spread as quickly as ripples in water but also be bound by political and religious alliances or enmities, plague, famine and not to mention the role also played by topographical and cultural differences. Thus, at times, vast cultural differences could be seen from region to region.
To this should be added a wide range of social factors, such as the role of relationships and mentalities, and the obeying of unspoken norms and codes which can also affect modern researchers’ interpretations of what is shown or described. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide a series of “behind the scenes” examples which all have the potential to affect hypotheses, interpretations, and overall understandings of the context of historical European martial arts.
Introduction. The locus of control and the sense of competence are the psychological resources relevant to the taking-up and continuation of actions in certain situations. They are important regulating factors of the relationships between the man and the environment. It seems that, in such a specific field as martial arts are, these characteristics are useful and their identification and targeted strengthening desirable. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to gather knowledge about the sense of competence and self-control of young people practicing martial arts, as well as the relationship between these variables. Materials and methods. A total of 39 people aged 14-19 years participated in this research. All of them practiced martial arts. They had an average of more than two years training. Data were collected through the (KBPK) Locus of control Questionnaire (by G. and A. Krasowicz Kurzyp-Wojnarski) and the Personal Competence Scale KompOs (by Z. Juczyñski), and a questionnaire designed specifically for this research. Results. Statistical analyses conducted for the study have showed that the respondents represent a transient sense of locus of control, and average levels of personal competence in the field of strength and perseverance. Out of the measured variables, the locus of control in the event of success and a sense of strength were relatively highest. These variables also proved to be interdependent. Analysis also allowed for identification of many other relationships between the variables. Conclusions. Our findings may provide a clue for a possible modification of programs mentally preparing young athletes for martial arts sports. They may also act as suggestions sensitise trainers to specific psychosocial needs of young athletes.
Jack Gassmann, Jürg Gassmann and Dominique Le Coultre
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