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1 Introduction 1.1 Aim of research This research is focused on effective angle of internal friction and compares the results for the Vistula Marshlands muds and peats with similar soft soils. Effective shear strength parameters of the deltaic soils near Gdańsk are measured in drained and undrained triaxial compression tests and estimated with the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) method using the Cone Penetration Tests (CPTU) sounding. The observed dilative-contractive soil behaviour is discussed taking into account the CPTU classification chart proposed by

classification in which the hierarchy respects clusterheterogeneity. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 596–602. Shaposhnikova, A. O. 2017: The current state and topical directions of vegetation research of National Nature Park “Dzharylgachsky”. Chornomorski Botanical Journal 13(2): 239–251. doi:10.14255/2308-9628/17.132/10 [in Ukrainian]. Stančić, Z., Žganec, K. & Gottstein, S. 2010: Marshland vegetation of Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia). Candollea 65(1): 147–167. doi: 10.15553/c2010v651a16. Taffetani, F. (eds.). 2011: Bosco Fantine. A retrodontal wetland of high

Beckmannia Eruciformis (L.) Host in Slovakia - Distribution, Ecology and Coenotic Affinity: Dedicated to the memory of Ján Bogoly (1951 - 2011)

The historical and recent distribution, ecology and phytosociology of perennial grass Beckmannia eruciformis was studied in Slovakia between 2002 and 2010. Altogether 22 natural and two secondary sites with presence of the species were found from published sources, herbaria and field research. Localities of its native occurrence have been concentrated in Eastern Slovakia (Východoslovenská nížina Lowland from the settlement of Streda nad Bodrogom to the villages of Pribeník and Biel). Secondary sites were found in Western Slovakia (Podunajská nížina Lowland; the surroundings of Sládkovičovo town and Jaslovské Bohunice village). The relatively massive reduction of Beckmannia eruciformis localities was recorded in the seventies and eighties of the last century; it was related to massive land reclamation and alterations in the water regime of river alluvia. Recently only seven localities were found. Permanent occurrence was confirmed only in two localities (Malý Horeš, Strážne). In those cases Beckmannia eruciformis has created relatively large populations including some thousands of individuals. All other recent occurrences were temporary (Streda nad Bodrogom, Keresztúr farmstead, Horešské lúky Nature Reserve, Veľký Horeš, Pribeník). Moreover, they were relatively poor in the number in individuals and are acutely threatened by anthropogenic changes of environmental conditions. According to our results and by applying the IUCN criteria, we propose to modify the threat category of the species from critically endangered (CR) to endangered (EN) in Slovakia. Occurrence of the association Beckmannietum eruciformis and the alliance Beckmannion eruciformis, was also not confirmed for Slovakia during our research. We believe that the association was not present in the past either. Recently, Beckmannia eruciformis was found in the stands of Oenanthion aquaticae (Phragmito-Magnocaricetea) and Potentillion anserinae (Molinio-Arrhenatheretea) in two localities (Malý Horeš, Strážne) during our study. The species composition of the mentioned alliances is fundamentally influenced by the ecological conditions of sites, mainly by water regime during the vegetation period. According to our knowledge, the most favourable conditions for Beckmannia eruciformis are the following: short-term and low floods in the spring, decrease of the water table at the beginning of summer and relatively high level of groundwater during next part of vegetation period. On the contrary, the species may not appear on the site in case of unfavourable weather conditions (dry years).

-60. Baumgarten, W., Neugebauer, T., Fuchs, E., Horn, R., 2012. Structural stability of Marshland soils of the riparian zone of the Tidal Elbe River. Soil Tillage Res., 125, 80-88. Bergemann, M., 1995. Die Lage der oberen Brackwassergrenze im Elbeästuar. Deutsche Gewässerkundliche Mitteilungen, 39, 4-5, 134-137. Blume, H.-P., Stahr, K., Leinweber, P., 2011. Bodenkundliches Praktikum. Eine Einführung in pedologisches Arbeiten für Ökologen, insbesondere Land- und Forstwirte, und für Geowissenschaftler. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg. Brandenburg, U., Lagaly, G., 1988


The city of Ljubljana lies at the intersection of various geomorphological regions that have strongly influenced its spatial organization. Prehistoric settlements were built on marshland, a Roman town was built on the first river terrace of the Ljubljanica River, and in the Middle Ages a town was built in a strategic position between the Ljubljanica River and Castle Hill. The modern city absorbed all usable space between the nearby hills. This paper reviews some relief features in Ljubljana, their influence on the city’s spatial development, and urban geoheritage. The results indicate new possibilities for urban geoheritage tourism in the Slovenian capital and its surroundings.


Sau M., Chakraborty M., Das R. and Mukherjee S. 2018. Effect of multiple adjoining habitats on avifaunal diversity in an agriculture based-wetland adjacent to the Hooghly River, West Bengal, India. Ring 40: 59-92.

This study was conducted on four plots having a cluster of different combinations of forest, wetland, and agricultural land, as well as a single marshland habitat near the river Hooghly. We obtained 17,817 counts for 150 species in 32 days of year-round sampling. The wetland-agricultural land associated with forest had the highest species diversity (132 species, Shannon ̄H 1.63), heterogeneity (Shannon J’ – 0.773), and number of unique species (33 species), and the lowest dominance (Simpson Index 1/D – 39.35), in contrast with the marsh, which had the lowest diversity (41 species, Shannon ̄H – 1.39), highest homogeneity (Shannon J’ – 0.863), and a lack of uniqueness. The plot with secondary forest patches between an agricultural field and human settlements showed the highest species dominance (Simpsons Diversity 1/D – 17.465). Species rarity ranged from 68.2% to 77.6% within the area under study. There were 25 species common to all plots, which formed six distinct groups based on their abundance. Carnivores were found to be the dominant foraging guild throughout the habitats. Thirty-two per cent of the species are migratory, with the families Scolopacidae and Motacillidae predominating. The Jaccard and Sorensen indices reveal the greatest species similarity between the wetlandpisciculture plot and the marshland. These indices together with the hierarchical cluster analysis indicate the uniqueness of the plot of open forest habitat adjoining the wetland, which offers the best living conditions for migratory species. Our study concludes that when a wetland is surrounded by agriculture rather than fisheries, avifaunal diversity increases, whereas forest-associated wetland-farmland maximizes species richness with minimum dominance and hence imparts greater stability to the overall community structure.


1. In semi-natural grasslands, nest trampling by cattle can have a strong effect on hatching success but the relationship linking cattle density, incubation time and nest survival has for now only been hypothesized.

2. Based on an experiment with artificial nests, the objective of this study was to test the theoretical model generally used to estimate nest survival. In spring 2009, we conducted a one-month experiment on permanent grasslands of the French western marshlands grazed at three different stocking rates (1 LU.ha-1, 2 LU.ha-1 and 4 LU.ha-1).

3. The results confirmed that trampling depended on stocking rates.

4. Trampling had a major effect on nest survival (32-85% of nests destroyed).

5. The theoretical model classically used by managers and modellers proved to be a good approximation of the dynamics of nest trampling.

6. Synthesis and applications: We conclude that nest trampling has a major impact on nest survival in pastures and that the use of such a model could help managers to define acceptable levels of cattle densities.


The Kraków Metropolitan Area (KOM) is a specific functional region comprising a big city that is the Kraków metropolis, together with its neighbouring complex of settlements with a variety of mutual interactions. The social and economic space requires multi-dimensional enhancement of its interrelations and partial rehabilitation of its developed areas; it constitutes, at the same time, a potential which strengthens the position of Kraków as a European city. A clear structure of the metropolitan area and its internal links through green seams provide the basis for functional and spatial integration of the metropolis. The greenery, comprised in larger natural structures such as river parks and green wedges, enhances the area’s polycentric concept. The shaping of the urban tissue of Kraków and its suburban zone by composing and building a network of open spaces is the basic criterion for developing a coherent metropolitan area with a sustainable structure. Many problems of the urban environment and its surroundings can be fully understood through their analyses in various scales. In order to better illustrate this complex system of interrelations, reference should be made in analyses to the macroregional scale then narrowing them to the regional scale, to ultimately go down to the metropolis. The issues covered in the paper concern open areas which should not be discussed without a broader spectrum because the notion of green areas is understood to mean primarily spaces which are networked and intertwined with the settlement structure. Some of them are clear, for instance the greenery which accompanies water courses, and easy to identify. Marshlands are mostly linearly continuous and this makes them coherent in their nature. Other green areas (apart from larger forest complexes) are not of essential significance for the integration of the metropolis. The example of Kraków shows that the KOM (1) has a big potential expressed through its natural environment in the form of green areas. The anthropopressure, however, is so high that open spaces are being absorbed by developments. It is riverside areas which have retained a clear structure of interrelations and they should be perceived as the future for the links in the metropolitan area.

inland wader species during autumn migration, case of Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola and Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago. Ornis Fenn. 84, 3: 119-130. Zieliński M., Studziński S. 1996. Avifauna of the marshland of Błota Rakutowskie near Włocławek. Not. Orn. 37, 3-4: 259-300.

(Osteichthyes: Erythrinidae) of economic importance in occidental marshlands of Maranhao, Brazil. Vet. Parasitol., 127: 51–59 [12] Moravec, F. (1998): Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical region. Academia, Prague [13] Moravec, F. (2000): Mematodes as parasites of inland fishes in Mexico. In G. Salgado-Maldonado, A. N. García Aldrete & V. M. Vidal-Martinez (Eds): Metazoan parasites in the neotropics: a systematic and ecological perspective, Instituto de Biología, UNAM, Mexico [14] Moravec, F., Kohn, A., Fernandes, B