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. 3, 283–304. Gaebler V., 1967, Die Legende thematischer Karten. Batrachtung zur Gestaltung, Vermessungstechnik , Vol. 15, 304–309. Muehrcke P.C., 1978, Map use. Reading, analysis, and interpretation , JP Publication, Madison. Schlichtmann H., 1997, Functions of the map legend, [in:] Proceedings of the 18th International Cartographic Conference , 430, Stockholm. DeLucia A.A, Hiller D.W., 1982, Natural legend design for thematic maps, The Cartographic Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1, 46–52. Pickle L. W., Herrmann D., Wilson B., 1995, A legendary study of statistical map


Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement). However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance) or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance). Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map) which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial relations between individual elements and their groups independent of consciousness.

The process of map perception depends on various factors, including the nature, scale and map content, the degree of its complexity and compliance of the map language with cartographic principles. Important factors also include cartographic competencies of the recipient of a map conditioned by age, education and the task type. It is related to types of information about geographical space: semantic – concerning spatial references of particular objects and structural – connected to relations between elements of a map. Such relations may be determined at the regional or global level, they may concern qualitative or quantitative features as well as changes in time.

Nowadays, an important factor impacting the nature and consequences of map perception is the situation in which the process occurs. Traditionally, static and unchanging maps are used under other conditions than computer maps and navigation systems, making it possible to freely zoom in and zoom out the image and its spatial scope as well as to quickly go from one image to another.

Today, when the predominant way of map use is their perception on the screens of navigation systems, processes of map perception and factors conditioning it are also significant to understand the process. In the analysis of map perception, also tasks which are implemented using the map and the nature of information obtained by the map user must be taken into account.

conducted deliberately, as it will have an impact on the results. Roth’s paper (2013a) constitutes a canvas for standardising experimental studies. A similar approach may be applied towards other elements of an empirical study in cartography. Despite the study areas in cartography being different, such as geovisualisation, cognitive cartography, communication theory or modelling approach, all cartographers have one common interest – a map. The main aim of this paper is to present types of maps used as stimuli in empirical studies in cartography in the context of the user


The article focuses on the problem of building dense 3D occupancy maps using commercial RGB-D sensors and the SLAM approach. In particular, it addresses the problem of 3D map representations, which must be able both to store millions of points and to offer efficient update mechanisms. The proposed solution consists of two such key elements, visual odometry and surfel-based mapping, but it contains substantial improvements: storing the surfel maps in octree form and utilizing a frustum culling-based method to accelerate the map update step. The performed experiments verify the usefulness and efficiency of the developed system.


The author presents criteria of evaluation and assumption for early school education maps. Attention was payed to needs and perceptual possibilities of map users and cartographic correctness of maps. Main criteria of map evaluation – content and form of a map – have their unique attributes. In case of the first criterion they are accuracy and currency, classification of content and usability. Second criterion consist of: composition, colours, labels on the map and readability. Materials commissioned by Ministry of National Education were evaluated on the said criteria basis. Evaluation of maps for early school education revealed their flaws, among which absence of a scale can be named. Afterwards assumptions were developed and used to prepare own proposal of a map. Achieving maximum readability was a priority. Other assumptions concerned graphic balance, classification and hierarchy of content, simplicity of elaboration, usage of readable typefaces and adjustment of transmission to the age of users.


The author first discusses the various ways of classifying cartographic generalization techniques, and then analyzes the course of the generalization process during the creation of a 1:50 000 topographic map on the basis of a 1:10 000 map. Using this analysis as a foundation, the author identifies, discusses and illustrates with examples the five types of cartographic generalization.

References [AMS] US Army Map Service, 1944, AMS M651 (GSGS 4416) Map of Poland. Sheet Q-17 Lubartow, US Army - Army Map Service, Washington. Retrieved from [accessed 20 October 2017]. Affek A., 2013, Georeferencing of historical maps using GIS: As exemplified by the Austrian military surveys of Galicia, Geogr. Polon. 86(4): 375-390. Barabach J., 2012, The history of Lake Rzecin and its surroundings drawn on maps as a background to palaeoecological reconstruction, Limnol. Rev. 12(3): 103-114. Borowiec J., 1990

), we used 2007 data to develop a global map of science. At that time, drawing a map using the approximately 10,000 journals in the database was technically not feasible due, among other things, to the cluttering of the labels on the screen. This problem was elegantly solved by VOSviewer (which became available in 2009), by allowing interactive zoom in/out functionality in the visualization ( Klavans & Boyack, 2009 ; van Eck & Waltman, 2010 ) Available at . . Earlier maps were developed into an overlay-toolkit http


Pliszko A., 2018: First record of Solidago ×snarskisii (Asteraceae) in Poland. - Botanica, 24(2): 211-213. The paper deals with Solidago ×snarskisii, a natural hybrid between the North American S. gigantea and the European S. virgaurea, as a new casual alien species to the flora of Poland. It was found in August 2018 in the town of Suwałki, NE Poland, growing on a fallow land among its parental species. The population of the hybrid consisted of one cluster of shoots, including four generative and three vegetative shoots, and it was associated with meadow, grassland, and ruderal plant species. The locality of S. ×snarskisii in Poland was mapped using the ATPOL cartogram method.


In the paper the author described briefly modern technical possibilities of supporting the use of maps in field research and presented methods of map use in localisation of objects. In his description of the methods the author presented the differences in the approach to the problem depending on the features of the maps, both paper and digital ones. He also stressed the issue of adjustment of the features related to the cartometricity of the maps in use to the coordinate system in which the data required for the field projects are obtained and processed.