Literature Anderson J.R., 1995, Cognitive psychology and its implication . New York: Freeman, 519 pp. Arnheim R., 1976, The perception of maps . “The American Cartographer” Vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 5–10. Bertin J., 1967, Semiologie graphique . Les diagrammes, les reseaux, les cartes . Paris: Mouton/Gauthier-Villars, 431 pp. Castner H.W., Lywood D.W., 1978, Eye movement recording. Some approaches to the study of mapperception . “The Canadian Cartographer” Vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 142–150. Cave K.R., Wolfe J.M., 1990, Modeling the role of parallel processing in visual
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interactive maps among participants, as in the case of the map medium. Non-interactive maps are more often used as a stimulus (66% of analysed studies) ( Table 2 , Fig. 2 ). There may be several causes for this. First, they allow studies of holistic mapperception to be conducted, as users cannot choose layers to be displayed, change symbolisation or colours. When it comes to interactive maps, cartographers have to pre-define the limitations of the modifications ( Kraak & Brown 2001 ; Kraak & Ormeling 2015 ). Therefore, the purpose is to check the usability of one of the
Intense development of computer technology has taken place in the last several decades made it possible to cartographically present variability of phenomena in a dynamic way. As a result of using animation techniques in cartography there appeared new methods of presentation of changes, referred to as direct. Considering the character of the relation between display time and real time, two basic types of animated maps have been distinguished: temporal and non-temporal. Other criteria of classifying animation are the presence and level of interactivity and the technical criteria of production.
Regardless of the applied classification, perception of the contents of animated maps is one of the main issues, since using animation leads to a significant cognitive load specific for dynamic methods. Fast sequence of data and its quick disappearance can result in omission of some information because in the case of animated maps there is a higher risk of exceeding perception potential of users than in the case of static maps.
Higher efficiency of animated map perception can be achieved by applying methods of cognitive overload reduction determined through experimental research. The most important of them are: using control tools, directing attention with dynamically blinking lights, locating connected objects close to one another, using sound, adapting generalization level to the characteristics of moving images and accounting for the age and experience of map users.
Among more sophisticated solutions are such elements as so-called decay and a combination of static and animated map features in the form of semi-static animations.
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gęstości zjawisk rozproszonych na mapach tematycznych’ Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny , vol.34, no 1, pp. 11-21. Spallek W 2002 ‘Metody prezentacji gęstości zjawisk rozproszonych na mapach tematycznych’ Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny 34 1 11 21 Żyszkowska, W 2016, ‘Visual features of cartographic representation in mapperception’, Polish Cartographical Review vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 5-15. 10.1515/pcr-2016-0003 Żyszkowska W 2016 ‘Visual features of cartographic representation in mapperception’ Polish Cartographical Review 48 1 5 15