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). Comparative effects of hermetic and traditional storage devices on maize grain: Mycotoxin development, insect infestation and grain quality. Journal of Stored Products Research, 77, 34-44. Weigler, F., Scaar, H., Mellmann, J. (2012). Investigation of particle and air flows in a mixed-flow dryer. Drying Technology, 30 (15), 1730-1741. Zhu, F. (2018). Effect of ozone treatment on the quality of grain products. Food Chemistr y, 264 (May), 358–366.


Corn is one of the most important cereal crop grown in Iran. A complete randomized design with four replications was used to analysis the influence of soil amendment of super absorbent polymer on grain yield and yield components of corn in center of Iran in 2016 and 2017. Treatments with super absorbent polymer were 0 kg/ha (S1), 15 kg/ha (S2), 30 kg/ha (S3), and treatments with fertilizers were 50% (F1), 75% (F2), 100% (F3), which could be combined into nine pots. The influence of super absorbent polymer was significant on spike weight in 2017, above-ground biomass in 2016, one hundred seed weight in 2016, and grain yield in 2017. There was no meaningful influence of super absorbent polymer on spike weight in 2016, above-ground biomass in 2017, 100 seed weight in 2017 and grain yield in 2016. Fertilizer treatments had significant influence on spike weight, above-ground biomass, 100 seed weight, and grain yield in both 2016 and 2017. The interaction between SAP and fertilizers had significant effect on above ground biomass in 2017. In both years, the highest spike weight, above ground biomass, 100 seed weight and grain yield was related to S3 (30 kg/ha), followed by S2 (15 kg/ha) and S1 (0 kg/ha), respectively. 100% application of fertilizer (F3) had obtained the maximum spike weight, above ground biomass, 100 seed weight and grain in both 2016 and 2017. Our data have shown that the applied SAP had a remarkable effect on corn growth and yield under different fertilization treatments, and its application of 30 kg/ha gave the best corn production index.

The effect of soil Ph and precipitation variability during the growing season on maize hybrid grain yield in a 17 year long-term experiment

We established a multifactoral long-term field experiment at the Látókép experimental site of the University of Debrecen (Debrecen, Hungary), on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil in 1984, using experimental data from 17 years (1990-2008). We examined the extent to which soil fertility affects maize yield under natural conditions (without fertilisation). We analysed the effect of precipitation in the winter period (from the harvest of the previous crop (maize) until sowing (i.e. October-March)) and the growing season (i.e. April-September) on yield and we evaluated yield per FAO group. We examined the joint effect of crop year and hybrid maturity groups on maize yield; then we evaluated how hybrid maturity groups per crop year and wet and dry years per ripening group affected maize yield. It was shown that the pH value of soil significantly affected yield and also that there was a strong positive correlation between pH value and yield (r = 0.81) at a 1% significance level. The correlation between the two variables is described by a linear regression line. The slope shows that a 0.1 soil pH increase results in a 510 kg ha-1 maize yield increase on average. The correlation between the amount of precipitation during the growing season and maize yield is average, positive (r = 0.718) and linear. Based on the parameters of the estimated regression line - within non-fertilised conditions - 1 mm increase of precipitation resulted in a 9 kg ha-1 increase in yield. The analysis of the joint effect of hybrid maturity groups and crop year on yield showed that crop year determines standard deviation six times more than hybrid maturity groups, whereas the effect their interaction was not significant.

References Baloyi, T.C. (2013). Maize grain yield response to variance in plant density under minimal soil disturbance and row spacing. Agricultural Science Research Journals, 3(8), 250−260. Birkas, M., Jolankai, M., Gyuricza, C. & Percze A. (2004). Tillage effects on compaction, earthworms and other soil quality indicators in Hungary. Soil Tillage Res., 78, 185−196. doi : 10.1016/j.still.2004.02.006. Birkas, M., Antos, G., Nemenyi, M. & Szemők A. (2008). Environmentally-sound adaptable tillage. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. Carter, M

zeamais (M otsch .). Insect Science and its Applications 10 (1): 89–92. D anjumma B.J., M ajeed Q., M anga S.B., Y ahaya A., D ike M.C., B amaiya L. 2009. Effects of some plants powders in the control of Sitophilus zeamais (M otsch .) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation on maize grains. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 4 (4): 313–316. D anloye A.A., T esilim K.O., N egbenebor , H., M akanjuola W.A. 2008. Assessment of the efficacy of Actellic and Sumithion in protecting grains from infestation during storage. Journal of Entomology 5 (1

REFERENCES Bąk K., Gaj R. (2016): The effect of differentiated phosphorus and potassium fertilization on maize grain yield and plant nutritional status at the critical growth stage. J. Elem. 21(2): 337-348. Bąk K, Gaj R., Budka A. (2016): Accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in mature maize under variable rates of mineral fertilization. Fragm. Agron. 33(1): 7-19. Bierman P.M., Rosen C.J. (1994): Phosphate and trace metal availability from sewage-sludge incinerator ash. J. Environ. Qual. 23: 822-830. Chalmers A.G., Sinclair A.H., Carver M. (1999


Maize is becoming more and more important crop for dairy farming as forage and as substrate for biogas production. The mycotoxin producing fungi can spoil feed, reduce cattle productivity and cause health problems. The aim of this research was to study the mycoflora of maize grains in order to clarify the fungal composition and verify the presence of potential mycotoxin producing fungi. The grain samples were collected from different maize hybrid performance trial in Research and Study farm “Vecauce” of Latvia University of Agriculture in 2014. The fungi from 14 genera were isolated from surface sterilized grains. The most abundant were Alternaria, Fusarium and Penicillium spp. Mycotoxin producing fungi are present in maize grain mycoflora, and there is a risk that maize production can contain mycotoxins.


The parameters determining the agronomic and economic performance of genetically modified maize hybrid MON 89034 × NK603 and conventional hybrids were compared under conditions that eliminated the herbicide tolerance in GM hybrid as well as the use of insecticides in conventional hybrids. The GM hybrid confirmed ability to protect itself against the European corn borer and its average grain yield was higher by 6.36-14.42% (i.e. 0.82-1.86 t/ha) in comparison with conventional hybrids. The year of cultivation statistically significant influenced agronomic parameters and the financial income of maize production. The maize genotype did not statistically significantly affected any evaluated parameter. The final income was statistically significant (P < 0.05) negatively influenced by all observed agronomic parameters with the exception of the seed price. The price of maize grains on the market was the only one factor that statistically significant (P < 0.05) influenced financial income of the maize production.


Familiarity based approval of the newly developed GM cereal events is based upon the stable and safe consumption of conventional grains. The level of concentrations of mycotoxins and biomolecules establishes the criteria for premarket evaluation of genetically modified cereals e.g. MON 810 maize. The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate food biosafety of the conventional and GM maize. Grain samples from the harvest lot of 10 maize hybrids in the year 2011 were collected arbitrarily. Well ground and homogenized samples were analysed for the deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxins. Contamination rates and levels of DON and OTA were low and did not exceed the maximum levels, indicating their possible safe use as food and feed under the EC regulation 1881/2006.The samples were further analysed for the possible effect of mycotoxin concentration upon that of starch and proteins. The study reveals the absence of any negative impact of the presence of mycotoxins upon these biomolecules as their concentrations lie within the normal range. A comparative review of data for the mycotoxins in conventional maize grains invalidate the argument from the producers of GM maize hybrids that conventional hybrids are inferior for food biosafety with respect to mycotoxins.


Field experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Agriculture in 2004/2005, 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons to investigate the effects of cowpea varieties on succeeding of maize crop. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design and the treatment replicated three times. The main plot treatment was sprayed and unsprayed cowpea (Vigna unguculata L.) while variety constituted the subplot treatment (IT90K-76, IT90K-277-2, Drum, Olo, Oloyin, Mallam and Sokoto varieties). Maize variety cv TZESR-W was planted as the test crop in the early cropping season of 2005, 2006 and 2007 on each subplot of the preceding cowpea. The biomass of cowpea in the spray plots were higher than those of unsprayed at 8, 10 WAP in 2004. Olo variety had significantly lower biomass compared to others in 2004. The grain yield of cowpea from the sprayed plots was significantly higher than the unsprayed plots in all the years. IT90K-76 variety had the highest grain yield whereas Mallam and Drum had the lowest in all the years. Maize grain yields from the preceding cowpea plots were significantly higher than that of 0 N kg/ha. The fertilizer equivalent of the preceding varieties of cowpea ranges between 24 and 38 N kg/ha. Thus, preceding cowpea enhances the performance of succeeding maize.