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REFERENCES 1. Ahmad, Z., Principles of corrosion engineering and corrosion control. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. 2. Porter P.C., Use of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) for the inspection of pipelines and storage tanks. Proc. SPIE 2454, Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Utilities (1995), 172–184. 3. Bubenik T.A., Nestleroth J.B., Eiber R.J., and Saffell B.F., Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technology for natural gas pipeline inspection. Topical report, November 1992. 4. Sutherland J. and Paz H., Advances in in-line inspection technology for pipeline integrity. 5th

R eferences [1] Rao, B.P.C. (2012). Magnetic flux leakage. Journal of Non - Destructive Testing & Evaluation , 11 (3), 7-17. [2] Mandache, C., Clapham, L. (2003). A model for magnetic flux leakage signal predication. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics , 36, 2427-2431. [3] Jianbo, W., Yanhua, S., Yihua, K., Yun, Y., (2015). Theoritical analyses of MFL signal affected by discontinuity orientation and sensor scanning direction. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , 51 (1). [4] Le, M., Lee, J., Junc, J., Kima, J. (2013). Estimation of sizes of cracks on pipes in

R eferences [1] P. C. Porter, “Use of Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) for the Inspection of Pipelines and Storage Tanks”, Proc. SPIE 2454 , Non-destructive Evaluation of Aging Utilities (1995), pp. 172–184. [2] Z. Gan and X. Chai, “Numerical Simulation on Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing of the Steel Cable at Different Speed Title”, ICEOE 2011 - International Conference on Electronics and Optoelectronics , Proceedings, 2011, vol. 3, pp. 316–319. [3] L. Zhang, F. Belblidia, I. Cameron, J. Sienz, M. Boat and N. Pearson, “Influence of Specimen Velocity on the Leakage

References [1] Lukyanets, S., Snarskii, A., Shamonin, M., Bakaev, V. (2003). Calculation of magnetic leakage field from a surface defect in a linear ferromagnetic material: An analytical approach. NDT & E International, 36, 51-55. [2] Lijian Yang, Guoguang Zhang, Gang Liu, Songwei Gao. (2008). Effect of lift-off on pipeline magnetic flux leakage inspection. In 17th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing, 25-28 October, 2008, Shanghai, China. [3] Snarskii, A.A., Zhenirovskyy, M., Meinert, D., Schulte, M. (2010). An integral equation model for the magnetic flux


The technical state of steel wire ropes has a decisive impact on the safety of people using the equipment in which they are installed. The basis for increasing safety is the ability to assess the condition of the working steel wire. The article presents the use of magnetometric sensors to determine the relationship between the number of steel wire rope bends and its magnetic field induction value. This knowledge, referred to ropes working on real objects, allows to determine the state of stress prevailing in them as well as their condition.


The change in the dislocation density, induced by plastic deformation, influences strongly the magnetic domain structure inside the material. Being so, classic parameters, like the coercivity or magnetic permeability, can be a good measure of the deformation level, yet their reliable determination in a non-destructive way in industrial environment is problematic. The magnetoacoustic emission (MAE) which results from the non-180° domain walls (DW) movement in materials with non-zero magnetostriction can be used as an alternative. The intensity of the MAE signal changes strongly as a result of plastic deformation for both tensile and compressive deformation. It is however possible to discern those cases by analysing the changes in the shape of the MAE signal envelopes. The set of the martensitic steel samples (P91) deformed up to 10% (for both tension and compression) was investigated. Due to geometrical limitations imposed by the special mounting system, enabling compression without buckling, the sample had the shape resulting in low signal to noise (S/N) ratio. Being so the optimization of FFT filtering and wavelet analysis was performed in order to improve sensitivity of the proposed method of deformation level determination.

] Szpytko , J., Hyla, P., Kosoń-Schab, A., Smoczek, J., Selected measurement and control techniques: experimental verification on a lab-scaled overhead crane , Journal of KONES: Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 299-308, 2017. [11] Wang , Z. D., Yao, K., Ding, K. Q., Quantitative study of metal magnetic memory signal versus local stress concentration , NDT & E International, 43 (6), pp. 513-518, 2010. [12] Wang , Z. D., Yao, K., Ding, K. Q., Theoretical studies of metal magnetic memory technique on magnetic flux leakage signals , NDT & E International, 43