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PMid:24703103 9. Stevenson, J.S., Sauls, J.A., Mendonça, L.G.D., Voelz, B.E. (2018). Dose and frequency of PGF 2α administration to lactating dairy cows exposed to presynchronization and either five- or seven-day Ovsynch protocols: ovulation, luteolysis, and pregnancy rates. J Dairy Sci. 101(10): 9575-9590. PMid:30100501 10. Momont, H.W., Seguin, B.E. (1984). Treatment of unobserved estrus in lactating dairy cows with prostaglandin F 2α products. Proc Symp Comp Cont Edu Pract Vet. pp. 28-31. 11. Wiltbank, M.C., Pursley, J

., Celeska I., Ilieska K., Opsomer G., Dovenski T. (2015). Follicular dynamics following induced luteolysis and transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of the largest follicle in dairy cows. Vet arhiv 85 (3): 247-260. 26. Kojima, F.N., Bergelt, E.G., Wehrman, M.E., Cupp, A.S., Fike, K.E. et al., (2003). Frequency of luteinizing hormone pulses in cattle influences duration of persistence of dominant ovarian follicles, follicular fluid concentration of steroids and activity of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Ani. Repro. Sci. 77, 187–211.

References 1. McCracken JA, Custer EE, Lamsa JC: Luteolysis: a neuroendocrine-mediated event. Physiol Rev 1999, 79: 263-324. 2. Skarzynski DJ, Ferreira-Dias G, Okuda K: Regulation of luteal function and corpus luteum regression in cow: hormonal control, immune mechanisms and intercellular communication. Reprod Dom Anim 2008, 43 Suppl 2: 57-65. 3. Rueda BR, Hendry IR, Hendry WJ, Fong HW, Stormshak F, Slayden OD, Davis JS: Decreased progesterone level and progesterone receptors antagonists promote apoptotic cell death in bovine luteal cells. Biol Reprod 2000, 62

-luteal phase of oestrous cycle does not modify the interoestrous interval in gilts. Ital J Anim Sci. 13, 527-529. 9. Halfordm DM., Wettemannm RP., Turmanm EJ., Omtvedt, IT. (1975). Luteal function in gilts after prostaglandin F2α. J Anim Sci. 41, 1706-1710. 10. Estill, CT., Britt, J.H., Gadsby, J.E. (1993). Repeated administration of prostaglandin F2α during the early luteal phase causes premature luteolysis in the pig. Biol. Reprod. 49, 181-185. PMid:8353186 11. Puglisi, TA., Rampacek

. Animal, 11: 2002–2009. Macmillan K.L., Segwagwe B.V., Pino C.S. (2003). Associations between the manipulation of patterns of follicular development and fertility in cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 78: 327–344. Martins J.P.N., Policelli R.K., Neuder L.M., Raphael W., Pursley J.R. (2011). Effects of cloprostenol sodium at final prostaglandin F2α of Ovsynch on complete luteolysis and pregnancy per artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 2815–2824. Motavalli T., Dirandeh E., Deldar H., Colazo M.G. (2017). Evaluation of shortened timed-AI protocols

formed, and the old one degenerates through the luteolysis, which by nature represents the programmed cell death process [ 21 , 22 ]. Apoptosis is considered to represent a key mechanism of germ cell loss in newborn ovaries. Later, after menarche, approximately 1000 follicles are lost monthly, and after 35 years of age, this rate increases [ 23 ]. The expression and balance of the apoptotic-related genes BCL2 and BAX are considered to regulate the apoptosis of germ cells [ 24 , 25 ]. In ovarian GCs, the gonadotropin-mediated inhibition of apoptosis has been

-0302(06)72432-8 27. Bisinotto, R.S., Chebel, R.C., Santos, J.E.P. (2010). Follicular wave of the ovulatory follicle and not cyclic status influences fertility of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 93(8): 3578–3587. PMid:20655426 28. Silvia, W. J., Lewis, G. S., McCracken, J. A., Thatcher, W. W., Wilson Jr, L. (1991). Hormonal regulation of uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2α during luteolysis in ruminants. Biol Reprod. 45(5): 655–663. PMid:1756203 29. Younas, M., Fuquay, J.W., Smith, A.E., Moore, A

., Hernández J., Benedito J.L.(2015). Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras., 50: 306–312. Greco L.F., Neves Neto J.T., Pedrico A., Lima F.S., Bisinotto R.S., Martinez N., Ribeiro E.S., Thatcher W.W., Staples C.R., Santos J.E.P.(2018). Effects of altering the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 fatty acids on spontaneous luteolysis in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 101: 10536–10556. Hughes J., Kwong W.Y., Li D., Salter A.M., Lea R.G., Sinclair K.D.(2011). Effects of omega-3 and-6

GE J ZHAO H WANG X YANG L. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in lipopolysaccharide-inhibited mouse granulosa cell estradiol production J Reprod Dev 2019 65 459 65 10.1262/jrd.2019-052 12 Neuvians TP, Schams D, Berisha B, Pfaffl MW. Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Mediators of Inflammation, and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Prostaglandin F2α-Induced Luteolysis in Bovine Corpus Luteum. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:473–80; DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.103.016154. Neuvians TP Schams D Berisha B Pfaffl MW Involvement of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Mediators of

transmembrane mucin 1, which is typically expressed on the apical borders of secretory epithelial cells. The study by Lin et al. indicated its role in response to oxidative stress, since its expression is upregulated in such conditions [ 11 ]. MUC1 presence has been detected in human fallopian tube epithelium [ 12 ], whereas our results show its downregulation in porcine OECs after long term in vitro cultivation. Another downregulated gene, EDNRB , encodes type B receptor for endothelin. Endothelins exert diverse functions throughout the organism, including luteolysis