Marian Turek, Aneta Michalak and Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
The objective of the paper is to present the problem of low-stack emission in the economic and financial context. The paper presents the results of preliminary research based on literature review and environmental reports. After completing the selection of publications and data extraction, which could help to describe the issue raised, their analysis, comparison and generalization was conducted. The aspects presented may constitute a starting point in building a model of pricing the economic results of low-stack emission. In the first place the phenomenon of smog was subject to analysis, as one of the most significant consequences of low-stack emission, influencing health of human beings, environment and tangible assets. Then an attempt was made to express the previously identified results of low-stack emission in the economic and financial categories, taking into consideration the costs incurred for the purposes of completing the undertakings aimed at decreasing low-stack emission, costs avoided due to the decrease of the number of illnesses caused by low-stack emission, costs avoided due to the restriction of the negative influence of low-stack emission on the environment and on tangible assets as well as economic benefits achieved thanks to the reduction of low-stack emission.
Katarzyna Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata Wistuba and Ireneusz Malik
The aim of the study was to investigate how the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere from the late 19th century until modern times has been recorded in rings of silver fir trees growing in southern Poland. Samples were collected from 24 firs growing in the Beskid Niski Mountains (Western Carpathians). Using a Pressler borer, a single core was collected from each tree. Within the samples, tree-ring widths were measured. On this basis, reductions of tree-ring widths were calculated and subsequently divided into three classes according to their severity. Study results indicate that growth reductions at the site studied were influenced by the pollution emitted from the now-defunct Central Industrial Region, which developed most rapidly from 1920 to 1940, and began to decline after World War II. These emissions were probably responsible for reductions in the trees sampled in the years 1928–1947. On the other hand, reductions of tree-ring widths dating from 1951 to 1989 were caused by the post-war development of heavy industry throughout Poland, and in particular in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, which developed at its most rapid rate from 1960 to 1990. The results obtained demonstrate that reductions of tree-ring widths in the silver firs studied are related to industrial air pollution in the 20th century. As industrial production declined and environmentally friendly technologies were introduced in the early 1990s, air pollution levels decreased and an increase in tree-ring widths followed in the silver firs studied. Further reductions of tree-ring widths have been observed in recent years (since 2009), which may be caused by air pollution due to low-stack emissions from domestic boilers. The analysis conducted demonstrates that a reduction in tree-ring widths in silver fir is a sensitive bioindicator of air pollution.
(a)pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. The essential activities focused on air-quality improvement set out in the Air Quality Plan include the following:
– introducing restriction on the use of heating devices fired by solid fuels;
– implementation of local low-stackemission reduction programs – elimination of inefficient devices based on solid fuels;
– development and modernization of municipal heating network and gas distribution networks to connect new consumers;
– thermomodernization of buildings and support of energy-efficient buildings in housing and public
). The δ 13 C present in air is about -8.3‰. A depletion of δ 13 C values may be due to the global and regional effects of fossil fuel burning and it may be also due to emissions connected with local sources of pollution (inter alia industrial factories, vehicles, lowstackemission of CO 2 ).
Decrease of δ 13 C in the air due to increase of CO 2 (according to Boden et al., 2016 ; McCarroll et al., 2009 ).
The aim of our studies was to investigate the sensitivity of the pine populations to various climatic factors (such as the air temperature
anthropogenic effects, such as, industrial factories, vehicles, and lowstackemission of CO 2 ( Waterhouse et al ., 2004 ; Saurer et al ., 2014 ). An elevated CO 2 level significantly decreases the δ 13 C in the air ( Keeling et al ., 1996 ). Across all the sites, elevated CO 2 levels increased the 13 C-derived iWUE , and a positive land-surface temperature anomaly- iWUE relationship was observed. According to NASA, land surface temperature differs from air temperature because land heats and cools more quickly than air. The most recent literature on this topic (for