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long-term care. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Brodsky, J., Habib, J., & Hirschfeld, M (2003b). Long-term care in developing countries: Ten case studies. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Camarano, A., Kanso, S., Leitao e Mello, J., & Fernandes Carvalho, D. (2010). As instituicoes de longa permanencia para idosos no Brasil [Long-term care facilities for the elderly in Brazil]. In: A. Camarano (Ed.) Cuidados de longa duração para a população idosa: Um novo risco social a ser assumido? [Long-term care for the elderly population: A new social risk to be faced?] Rio

References ANTTONEN, A. & SIPILA, J. (1996). European social care services: Is it possible to identify models? Journal of European Social Policy. 9(2), pp. 87–100. DOI:10.1177/095892879600600201. ANTTONEN, A. & KARSIO, O. (2016). Eldercare Service Redesingn in Finland: De-institutionalization of Long-Term care. Journal of Social Service Research. 42(2), pp. 151–166. DOI:10.1080/01488376.2015.1129017 BARR, N. (2010). Long-term care: A suitable case for social insurance. Social Policy and Administration. 44 (4), pp. 359–374. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467

research ( 3 ). European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) shows that Slovenia is the third country in Europe, ranking in difficulties to the access to long-term care ( 3 ). Nearly all users of LTC services state that they encounter difficulties with access (89% - report affordability as an issue, 84% availability (waiting lists, lack of services) and 60% accessibility – distance or opening hours as a source of barriers to access). Quality of care is rated more favourable, as only 46% report quality as difficulty related to LTC services, which is about EU average. It is


Aim of the Study. To analyse the usefulness of specialization training in the area of long-term care nursing as well as the possibilities to make use of the acquired qualifications – in the opinion of the specialists in this area.

Material and Methodology. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 162 specialists in long-term care nursing.

Results. The majority of respondents considered the specialization training as useful (91.4%) and meeting their expectations (83.9%). As the result of obtained specialization, they perform their work with patients better (67.9%), demonstrate expertise and proficiency as well as high degree of efficiency (67.3%). Some of them exercise their right to independent provision of healthcare services, predominantly the assessment of the patient’s level of consciousness with the use of methods and classifications (75.7%), physical examination (61.2%), oxygen therapy (55.3%), and definitely less often – referral to diagnostic tests (20.4%).

Conclusions. Completion of a specialization training in the area of long-term care nursing brings satisfaction and professional prestige to specialists, results in increased professional independence and improvement in the quality of provided care. However, high qualifications of this professional group are underutilized.

1.10.2017 White, J. T., & Gendron, T. L. (2016). LGBT elders in nursing homes, long-term care facilities, and residential communities. In: D. A. Harley, & P. B. Teaster (Hrsg.), Handbook of LGBT elders. An interdisciplinary approach to principles, practices, and policies (pp. 417–438). London: Springer. 10.1007/978-3-319-03623-6_21 White J. T. Gendron T.L. 2016 LGBT elders in nursing homes, long-term care facilities, and residential communities Harley D. A. Teaster P. B

References 1. Giannakouris K. Ageing characterises the demographic perspectives of the European societies. Eurostat Statistics in focus, 2008;72:1-11 2. Sfeatcu R, Dumitrache A, Dumitraşcu L, Lambescu D, Funieru C, Lupuşoru M. Aspects of oral and general health among a community center for the underserved. J Med Life, 2011;4:168-171. 3. Zenthöfer A, Dieke R, Dieke A, Wege KC, Rammelsberg P, Hassel AJ. Improving oral hygiene in the long-term care of the elderly- a RCT. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2013;41:261-268. 4. De Visschere LM, Vanobbergen JN. Oral health



The aim of this work is to review the role of mental health care center and treatment center specialized in psychiatry in the Polish system of mental health care as a whole.


For many years in Poland, the process of transformation of psychiatric care model from the institutional (inpatient setting, most expensive) to community care model (personalized, much cheaper), has been taking place. The effective - coordinated system of community care should significantly improve cooperation in the treatment, while the community forms of health care should ensure full availability, complexity, and continuity of care provision. In many cases, the community support is inadequate and cannot provide patient with care at his home environment. For mentally ill, there may be a need for the use of the long term health care centers specialized in psychiatry.


A long term mental health care center specialised in mental health plays an important role in long-term care for the mentally ill. As far as a mental health service user’s perspective is concerned, the continuity of care and treatment in the long term health care center (as a health care unit) appears to be more useful and satisfying compared to a residential home for people with chronic mental illnesses. There is a need for broad discussion on the special place of the long term health care center specialized in psychiatry in the present Polish system of mental health care and on the improving of care pathways between inpatient-, day care-and, community care package.

Services Research 2009;9:145. 11. Le Reste J, Nabbe P, Manceau B, et al. The European General Practice Research Network presents a comprehensive defi nition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine and Long-Term Care, following a systematic review of relevant literature. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013;14(5):319-25. 12. Le Reste JY. The FPDM (family practice depression and Multimorbidity) Study: Project for systematic review of literature to fi nd criteria for multimorbidity definition. Eur J Gen Pract 2011;17(3):180. 13. Le Reste JY, Nabbe P, Lygidakis C, et al. A Research Group

hospital beds, professional medical care institutions, and nursing manpower resources, despite a high turnover. To help adapt to changes in the environment, the elderly support strategy “Long-Term Care Integrated with Health Care” was derived, called the Mode Innovation of Long-term Care based on the associated combination of medical-providing rehabilitation-nursing; integrated care for elderly patients that can maintain their physical, psychological, and social health has thus become a strategy. 24 The aged living support pattern of “Long-Term Care Integrated with

specialized multi-professional long-term care, which calls for a high level of coordination and cooperation between all sectors, organizations, and professions involved ( Ambrosino & Vitacca, 2018 ). Cases in which comprehensive support around the clock is needed are very common. It is estimated that about 20,000 IMV-assisted individuals in Germany receive this type of intensive care in their own home or in supervised flat-sharing communities, most of them on a 24/7 basis ( Lehmacher-Dubberke, 2016 ). Their exact number is unknown due to a lack of a comprehensive database