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observed. Discussion The main aim of this study was to analyze the acute effects of the Léger test performance on the CMJ and handgrip strength test performance in endurance athletes, determining whether fatigue reached would be higher than the PAP effect (impairment of performance) or the opposite (improvement of performance). The major finding of this study was that performance in the CMJ and handgrip strength was not reduced after the Léger test in long-distance runners. In fact, despite significant fatigue, the CMJ performance improved after 1 minute of recovery (+2

Sport and Health Science 6(1), 54-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.08.010. 10. Zatoń M., Michalik K. (2015). Effects of interval training-based glycolytic capacity on physical fitness in recreational long-distance runners. Human Movement 16(2), 71-77. 11. Hottenrott K., Ludyga S., Schulze S. (2012). Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11, 483-488. 12. Buchheit M., Laursen P.B. (2013). High-intensity interval training

track and field athletes (138 males and 42 females, age 18-80) and 80 swimmers (49 males and 31 females, age 16-49) participated in the study. Track and field athletes were assigned to three main sub-groups according to their event specialty during their athletic career: 1) long-distance runners (major event: a 5000 m to marathon run, n = 63), 2) middle-distance runners (major event: a 800-1500 m run, n = 48), and 3) short-distance runners (100-200 m sprinters and jumpers, n = 69). Swimmers were assigned to two groups according to their main swimming event during

Summary

The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the occurrence of cathartic states in a sample of long-distance runners. Data collected via questionnaires were used to evaluate quantitative variables complemented by heuristics while aiming at qualitatively categorize the areas of cathartic states in the context of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running. The study findings objectify philosophical and spiritual aspects affecting personalities of long-distance runners. The study findings have shown that catharsis represents a relevant philosophical and spiritual aspect affecting long-distance running. We assume that authentic experience of catharsis and its effects motivates runners to perform regular physical activity. The analysis of philosophical and spiritual aspects of long-distance running has revealed a multi-spectral holistic relevance based on the transfer affecting a specific way of life, spectrum of values, ethical personality traits, and also the quality of long-distance runners’ lives.

and catecholamine during exercise. Despite this body of research, it remains unclear whether central or muscular fatigue is the main cause of exhaustion during prolonged exercise. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine whether, in long-distance runners, oral intake of BCAAs would reduce muscular (CK and myoglobin) or central (serotonin) fatigue during an incremental exercise protocol when compared with a placebo and to determine time to exhaustion under both conditions. We hypothesised that oral BCAAs intake would attenuate serotonin levels during exercise and

Summary

The objective of the research was to determine the cognitive basis, the classification and evaluation of the long experience of long-distance runners in the senior category in relation to the perception of running as a factor in their overall health and wellbeing. Research was conducted with a sample of male and female long-distance runners with long experience in domestic and foreign longdistance running events in veteran categories. Oral and written interviews with the same questions were used to acquire information on the correlation between holistically understood health and long-term participation in long-distance running. The interview design allowed respondents to express their opinion on the questions in more detail through additional notes. A quantitative analysis of the acquired data was conducted using standard mathematical operations and the incidence of responses in percentage terms. The hypotheses were tested using a test on the parameter p of a binomial distribution and a median test. Senior-age long-distance runners’ decision to take up running was found to have both heteronomous motivation (encouragement by a sports teacher, admiration for other runners, persuasion by colleagues) and autonomous motivation (an internal need to run, a means for overcoming mental stress and restoring internal balance, the need to lose weight, elimination of health problems, the desire to compete). The majority of runners agreed that long-distance running had a positive effect on their overall health and physical condition. Long-distance runners rated the effect of long-distance running on their social and personal wellbeing to be greater than three on a five-point scale did. There is no statistically significant difference between the number of runners who think that long practice of running has some negative effects on their health and the number of runners who think that it has no negative effects. The majority of runners think that their health is better than that of their peers who do no sport.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether damage to liver and skeletal muscles occurs during a 100 km run; (2) whether the metabolic response to extreme exertion is related to the age or running speed of the participant; (3) whether it is possible to determine the optimal running speed and distance for long-distance runners’ health by examining biochemical parameters in venous blood. Fourteen experienced male amateur ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age groups, took part in a 100 km run. Blood samples for liver and skeletal muscle damage indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25, 50, 75 and 100 km, and 24 hours after termination of the run. A considerable increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was observed with the distance covered (p < 0.05), which continued during recovery. An increase in the mean values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.05) was observed with each sequential course. The biggest differences between the age groups were found for the activity of liver enzymes and LDH after completing 75 km as well as after 24 hours of recovery. It can be concluded that the response to extreme exertion deteriorates with age in terms of the active movement apparatus.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allometric scaling on the relationship between mechanical work and long-distance running performance in recreational runners. Fourteen recreational long-distance runners (male, mean ± SD - age: 29 ± 7 years; body mass: 70.0 ± 10.2 kg; body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max 52.0 ± 4.9 ml.kg-1.min-1) performed two tests: a continuous incremental test to volitional exhaustion in order to determine VO2max, and a 6-minute running submaximal test at 3.1 m.s-1, during which segments in the sagittal plane were recorded using a digital camera and the internal (Wint), external (Wext) and total (Wtot) mechanic work, in J.kg-1.m-1, was subsequently calculated. The results indicated a significant correlation between mechanical work and performance, however, the strongest correlations were observed when allometric exponents were used (respectively for Wint, Wext and Wtot; non allometric vs. allometric scaling defined by literature (0.75) or determined mathematically (0.49): r = 0.38 vs. r = 0.44 and r = 0.50; r = 0.80 vs. r = 0.83 and r = 0.82; r = 0.70 vs. r = 0.77 and r = 0.78). These results indicate that mechanical work could be used as a predictor of recreational long-distance performance and an allometric model may improve this prediction.

, Middle Distance, and Long Distance Runners after 400 and 1600 Meter Runs. Int J Medical Pharm Eng, 2013; 7(8): 218-221 Cheuvront SN, Haymes EM. Thermoregulation and Marathon Running. Sport Med, 2001; 31(10): 743-762 Daanen HAM, Lamberts RP, Kallen VL, Jin A, Meeteren NLU Van. A Systematic Review on Heart-Rate Recovery to Monitor Changes in Training Status in Athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2012; 7: 251-260 Drust B, Rasmussen P, Mohr M, Nielsen B, Nybo L. Elevations in core and muscle temperature impairs repeated sprint performance. Acta Physiol Scand, 2005; 183

sudden perturbations on trunk muscle activity and intra abdominal pressure while standing. Exp Brain Res , 1994; 98: 336-341 Cypress BK. Characteristics of physician visits for back symptoms: a national perspective. Am J Public Health , 1983; 73(4): 389-395 Fredericson M, Moore T. Core stabilization training for middle and long-distance runners. New Stud Athletics , 2005; 20: 25-37 Fredericson M, Moore T. Muscular balance, core stability, and injury prevention for middle- and long-distance runners. Phys Med Rehab Clin North Am , 2005; 16: 669-689 Friedli WG, Hallet