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Introduction Media and political structures are intimately connected. In fact, media systems theory suggests that media models are rooted in the political and economic fabric of a society. Journalism, as such, is in a ‘close relationship to the political world’ ( Hallin & Mancini, 2004 : 13). While media systems theory assumes that this is the case at the level of the nation state, few attempts have been made to analyse this system connection within the nation state – such as the relationship between the local political decision-making level and local news media

capitalise on the scale-enabled analytic resources of corporate organisations ( Kalsnes, 2019 ). As a result, we see a concentration in the Nordic region, with local chains and independently owned newspapers seeking corporate ownership to an increasing degree ( Leckner et al., 2019 ; Sjøvaag, 2019 ), not least to attain control over advertising markets. The question we ask in this regard is how newspaper companies in Scandinavia address this business model disruption, and what the algorithmic turn entails for the non-substitutability of local news. In order to ascertain

Abstract

The paper approaches the ‘ideology’ of Romanian post-communist journalism as identified in local news media organisations. We focus on the practical philosophy of journalism, emphasizing elements such as autonomy, truth, objectivity; and the relationship of journalists and news organisations with political actors. Special attention is given to the interplay between this practical philosophy and the political and economic constraints influencing news media organisations in Romania. We approach this topic using in-depth interviews with journalists and editors from news media organisations in three Romanian cities. We argue that two different ‘ideologies’ of journalism as a profession exist. These are complemented by a tendency toward reducing journalism to a simple occupation, linked to the politicization of media ownership in Romania and the widespread use of media organisations as vehicles for the free speech of their owners.

-1949 . New York: Harper & Brothers. Merton, R.K. (1968) Social Theory and Social Structure. 1968 Enlarged edition. New York: The Free Press. Moisy, C. (1997) ‘Myths of the Global Information Village’, Foreign Policy , (Summer 1997). Morley, D. (1992) Television, Audiences & Cultural Studies . London: Routledge. Moy, P., McCluskey, M.R., McCoy, K., & Spratt, M.A. (2004) ‘Political Correlates of Local News Media Use’, Journal of Communication , 54: 443-460. Mühleisen, W. (2003) Kjønn og sex på TV. [Gender and sex on tv.] Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Norris, P. (2000

domains of entrepreneurial passion ( Cardon et al., 2017 ), the purpose of this article is to provide a more complex understanding of the motivations often described as civic idealism. Furthermore, drawing from Sarasvathy (2001) , the article seeks to provide a more fruitful theoretical framework when assessing entrepreneurial skills. The opening quote by Mats Falck is a telling example from a precarious sector as well as an indication of the alternative rewards at play. When dealing with the sustainability of local news, it is because of the vulnerability as well as

research indicates that patterns in individuals’ interest in local, national and international news suggest divergent orientations to society ( Elvestad 2009 ; Merton 1968 ). At a basic level, while international news consumption predicts an awareness of global politics ( Curran et al. 2009 ), national and local news consumption predict knowledge about national and local politics, respectively ( Shaker 2012 ). In short, different orientations towards news have implications for citizens’ participation in self-governance. Consequently, it is important to study the

Abstract

This article explores the relationship between the implementation of a paywall and the editorial content profile in a local newspaper. The premise of the article is that the content published behind the wall is the content the newspaper values the most, and the article aims to contribute to an understanding of the interplay between strategic and economic decisions regarding news production and the editorial content. The Norwegian newspaper Fædrelandsvennen and its online initiative fevennen.no serve as cases in the study, and the article asks two questions: What are the most prominent news values behind the paywall, and how do they relate to commercial strategies regarding the introduction of the wall?

, Martin (2004) Journalism: A Critical History , London: Sage. Dunnett, Peter J. S. (1988) The World Newspaper Industry , London: Croom Helm. Ekström, Mats; Johansson, Bengt & Larsson, Larsåke (2006) ‘Journalism and Local Politics: A Study of Scrutiny and Accountability in Swedish Journalism’. Journalism Studies 7(2): 292-311. Ewart, Jacqui (2014) ‘Local People, Local Places, Local Voices and Local Spaces: How Talkback Radio in Australia Provides Hyper-local News through Mini-narrative Sharing’, Journalism , 15(6): 790-807. Force, James (1962) ‘The Daily Press in

markets by their product content and the advertising services they provide within those markets, has curtailed levels of domestic and international competition. ( Doyle, 2013 : 22) We find a similar pattern in Norway. According to Dimmen (2011 , 2012 ) and Høst (1993 , 2014 , 2015 ), the local print-based newspapers in Norway have established themselves in geographic niches with stable relationships with their advertisers, readers and journalistic sources in the local news market. Norway’s remarkably stable political structure on the local level has further

digital music and film/TV, the willingness to pay for local news and subscriptions to digital book services is low. Even though Generation Z believes that local news behind paywalls is better than local news outside paywalls, its members are not willing to pay for local news online. Regarding books, the use of e-books is lower than that of audiobooks, but the willingness to pay for e-books is higher than that for subscribing to audiobook streaming services. We argue that the real disruptive actors for local newspapers and the book industry in Norway are Facebook and