The paper focuses on Glossic Planosols (formerly Albeluvisols) with sandy topsoil widely represented in the northeastern part of Lower Silesia (SW Poland), in the range of tills from the Odra and Warta glaciations (Riss glaciation). The aim of the study was to characterize the texture of these soils in the context of the origin of parent materials and present-day pedogenic processes. Both the sedimentological and granulometric indexes, unbalances clay (and silt) fraction, and ventifact pavement at the contact of underlying loam and topsoil sandy layer confirm, that the textural differentiation of the topsoil and subsoil horizons has not resulted from the pedogenic processes, but primarily from the lithological discontinuity of glacial and post-glacial parent materials. Particle-size distribution and granulometric indexes of albeluvic tongues in the glossic horizon also confirm that the tongues has not been formed by eluviation of the fine fractions from the loamy material, but primarily by filling the initial thin crack with the sandy material. The coarser-textured tongues foster a deep infiltration and stagnation of water, and the development of reductic conditions allows further widening and deepening of the albeluvic tongues.
REFERENCES Ahr S. W., Nordt L.C., Driese S.G., 2012. Assessing lithologicdiscontinuities and parent material uniformity within the Texas sandy mantle and implications for archaeological burial and preservation potential in upland settings. Quaternary Research (United States) 78(1): 60–71. Ciarkowska K., 2000. Characteristic of brown gypsic rendzinas. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 51(1/2): 101–111. Ciarkowska K., Niemyska-Łukaszuk J., 2004. Microstructure and selected properties of gypsic chermozemic rendzinas occurring on the Niecka Nidziańska area
Soil texture, bulk and specific density, total porosity, and the water capacity at pF 0.2.7 were measured in Albeluvisols with more or less pronounced lithological discontinuity. The soil pits were located in the north-eastern part of the Silesian Lowland, on the glacial plain built of till blanketed with cover materials of various origin, mainly sands. Distinct albeluvic tongues with sandy texture and strong stagnic color mosaic at the contact of eluvial and illuvial horizons were identified in all profiles under study. The lowest bulk density was measured in the plough layers, while the highest in subsoil EBw horizons or glossic E/Bt horizons. Total porosity was the largest in plough layers, rapidly decreased in subsoil E horizons and then back increased with depth. Water capacity (at each measured pF value) was strongly correlated mainly with clay content and rapidly raised in E/B horizons. The highest field water capacity was measured in E/Bt horizons at low albeluvic tonguing intensity, or in deeper parts of Bt horizon at larger intensity of albeluvic tonguing into the illuvial horizon. The easily available water stock in the upper 100 cm-thick column of Albeluvisols with lithological discontinuity depends mainly on the depth of transition of eluvial (coarser) and illuvial (finer-textured) zones, similarly to typical Luvisols with the same type of textural (lithological) variability in the soil profile.
The article discusses the relationship between rendzinas and types of forest sites and plant communities in lowland, upland and mountain areas in Poland. Rendzinas as soils of forest sites play an important role in the uplands of southern Poland. In mountain areas, their preponderance is limited to the area of the Pieniny and the Western Tatras. The site-forming role of rendzinas in the upland areas depends mainly on geomorphological conditions. Typical rendzinas generally form eutrophic sites of multi-species oak-hornbeam forests, fertile beech forests and thermophilous beech forests. Rendzinas with lithological discontinuities usually create poorer form sites of mixed deciduous forests, which correspond to floristically poorer phytocenoses of acidophilous deciduous forests. In mountain areas, the climate and geomorphological processes form the zonation of vegetation and rendzinas. In vertical layout sites, the rendzinas change from fertile sites of fir and beech forests, through mesotrophic mixed forests sites, to spruce forest on limestone in the upper montane zone.
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