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-125. Carston, R., 2003. Explicature and semantics. In: S. David and B. Gillon, eds. Semantics: A reader . Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.817-845. Clark, B., 2013. Relevance theory . Cambridge University Press. Dailey R.M. and Palomares, N.A., 2004. Strategic topic avoidance: An investigation of topic avoidance frequency, strategies used, and relational correlates. Communication Monographs , vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 471–496. Dascal, M., 1987. Defending literal meaning. Cognitive Science , vol. 11, pp. 259-281. Davidson, D., 1979. On metaphor. In: S. Sacks, ed. On

–15. Gibbs, R.W.Jr. (1994). The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding . Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Gibbs, R.W.Jr. (2000). Irony in talk among friends. Metaphor and Symbol , 15 (1–2), 5–27. Gibbs, R.W.Jr. (2001). Evaluating contemporary models of figurative language understanding. Metaphor and Symbol , 16 (3/4), 317–333. Gibbs, R.W.Jr. (2002). A new look at the literal meaning in understanding what is said and implicated. Journal of Pragmatics , 34 (4), 457–486. Gibbs, R.W.Jr. (2004). Psycholinguistic experiments and

Press. Murphy, M. Lynne. 2010. Lexical Meaning . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pelczar, Michael. 2000. Wittgensteinian Semantics. Noûs 34: 483-516. Piantadosi, Steven T., Tily, Harry and Gibson, Edward. 2012. The Communicative Function of Ambiguity in Language. Cognition 122: 280-291. Pinker, Steven and Bloom, Paul. 1990. Natural Language and Natural Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13: 707-784. Recanati, François. 2004. Literal Meaning . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Searle, John. 1980. The Background of Meaning. In Speech Act


Following up on the previous special issue of Psychology of Language and Communication, devoted to irony, the current one concerns metaphors - another major form of non-literal language. The authors of the presented papers examine metaphor use and understanding in a wide variety of contexts, both in adult and child, as well as normal and abnormal populations. The result is a comprehensive survey of the current state of research, which opens further avenues of potentially fruitful inquiry.

politika u 2016. godini ABSTRACT: When nearly fifty years ago I wrote my first article on tourism, I could have written and talked about “an outsider’s view”. Everything that followed was “an insider’s view”. However, since I am no longer active, in the literal meaning of the word, in tourism, I can again rightfully claim that this article will offer “an outsider’s view”. Nevertheless, today this view is significantly different from the one I held during my early engagement with Croatian tourism, due to the diverse experience I gained during my longstanding


Translating haiku requires some sense of context. This article examines three elements of that context: seasonal words, the society in which haiku are produced, and prose (such as journal or short story). Behind the haiku there is a particular community in which poet and reader are close to each other, allowing the haiku to communicate more than their literal meaning. Taking this into consideration facilitates their translation.


At the beginning of the twenty-first century, understanding of transformation encompasses not only organizational and structural processes, but also processes related to the literacy of those who deal with transformation. The paper does not analyze the literal meaning of the concept of literacy as reading and writing abilities. Within the Armed Forces system, literacy can be considered from several aspects - doctrinal, managerial, methodological, psychological, pedagogical and technical. Since transformation is not an one-time act, but a permanent function of the National Security System, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of the continuity of the process of developing literacy of today’s leaders. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the arguments for the need of transformation of literacy (knowledge and skills) of the leaders of the transformation processes at the operational and tactical levels, so that they are able to skillfully apply the modern technological innovations in the preparation of the management bodies of the Armed Forces.


There exists a variety of theoretical frameworks attempting to account for the nature, comprehension, and use of everyday metaphor. Since these frameworks use different operational definitions of metaphor, they tend to view the psycholinguistic process of comprehending metaphorical language and the various factors that may play a role in metaphor processing from different perspectives. The first part of the paper briefly summarizes four of these theoretical approaches to everyday metaphor (Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Similarity Theory, Relevance Theory, and the Optimal Innovation Hypothesis) and discusses some consequences of the diversity of theories that present a puzzle or prove to be undesirable for empirical research. The areas discussed include the various dimensions of metaphor categorization, the role of linguistic context, and the effects of linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive skills of the comprehender. Drawing on the discussion in the first part, the second part of the paper outlines an experiment designed with reference to Giora’s Optimal Innovation Hypothesis in which preschoolers’ metaphor comprehension is explored as a function of the familiarity of the expression’s literal meaning and the perceived creativity of the metaphorical use. This experiment further explores the relationship between children’s metaphor comprehension and other cognitive abilities such as intention attribution. This method allows us to quantify metaphor comprehension and preference in the context of pragmatic development and general cognitive skills.


It has been defended since Gibbs (1994) that in proper contexts people mostly use the metaphorical asset of a message rather than its literal meaning, which means that we tend to express ourselves metaphorically and that conceptual metaphors and metonymies are features of communicative interaction. In the present paper we discuss the notion of metaphorical competence (Aleshtar & Dowlatabadi, 2014: 1895) in the process of language acquisition and learning of a (multilingual) speaker in a multilingual context. Based on previous studies by Sinha and Jansen (2004), Kövecses (2005), Palmer & Sharifian (2007), Gibbs & Colston (2012) and Sharifian (2015), among others, we postulate that research in the area should be centred not exclusively on Language but on interaction in a triangle Cognition - Language - Culture, We defend the way one conceptualises the world is based on bodily experience, and is mediated by culture (cf. Yu, 2003, 2009; Batoréo, 2017a). In this study we present research from different language backgrounds both occidental (European Portuguese, English and Polish) and oriental ones (Mandarin Chinese). It focuses on conceptualization of emotions (e.g., emotional expression of feeling hungry) and moral values (e.g. courage). The analysis shows that it implies culture anchorage and/or physiological and cultural embodiment. We defend that conceptual appropriateness and metaphor awareness play a fundamental role in the acquisition of figurative language (cf. Doiz & Elizari, 2013), which is at least partially motivated, and thus can be object of insightful learning (cf. Boers et al., 2004).

: Clarendon Press. MacFarlane, J. (forthcoming). Indexical Contextualism. To appear in Synthese . MacFarlane, J. 2007. Relativism and Disagreement. Philosophical Studies 132: 17–31. Recanati, F. 2004. Literal Meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.