Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Krzysztof Kwit and Zygmunt Pejsak
1. Araujo F.G., Slifer T.L., Remington J.S.: Effect of moxifloxacin on secretion of cytokines by human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002, 8, 26–30.
2. Bailly S., Fay M., Ferrua B., Gougerot-Pocidalo M.A.: Ciprofloxacin treatment in vivo increases the ex vivo capacity of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes to produce IL-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Clin Exp Immunol 1991, 85, 331–334.
3. Bazzoni F., Beutler B.: The tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor families. New
Ruaa SH. Nile, Mayyada F. Darweesh and Mohauman M. Al-Rufaie
Citrobacter spp. and antibacterial activity of omega-3 against resistant isolates. Curr Issues Phar Med Sci. 2017;30(3):156-61.
13. Christensen D, Korsholm KS, Andersen P, Agger EM. Cationic liposomes as vaccine adjuvants. J Expert Review Vacc. 2011;10(4): 513-21.
14. Alavi M, Karimi N, Safaei M. Application of various types of liposomes in drug delivery systems. J Adv Pharm Bull. 2017;7(1):3.
15. Naser HH, Salih SM, Al-Shaibani AB. Protective humoral immunity induced by lipopolysaccharide incorporated liposome in mice against shigellaflexneri
2007; 81: 1-5.
 Bortoluci KR, Medzhitov R. Control of infection by pyroptosis and autophagy: role of TLR and NLR. Cell Mol Life Sci 2010; 67: 1643-1651.
 Carty M, Goodbody R, Schroder M, Stack J, Moynagh PN, Bowie AG. The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signalling. Nat Immunol 2006; 7: 1074-1081.
 Chiang CY, Veckman V, Limmer K, Dav id M. Phospholipase Cγ-2 and intracellular calcium are required for lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4
Youbao Zhong, Xianlai Zhang, Xiaofen Hu and Yong Li
Immune challenge is regarded as a major obstacle to achieving the animal’s genetic potential for growth or to efficiency of weight gain ( 21 ). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important component of Gram-negative bacterium cytoderm ( 18 ), can be used as a stressor to activate the immune system ( 4 ). The acyl is inlaid into the outer membrane of bacteria, and the sugar chains are exposed to the outer surface of bacteria ( 9 ). Thus, LPS has strong antigen-specificity and can be recognised by antigen-presenting cells. LPS can induce inflammation and
-inflammatory effect of the taffy on the respiratory system using a murine model of pulmonary inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and a macrophage cell line [ 18 ].
Preparation of RT
Six medicinal herbs, including radish ( Raphanus sativus L., voucher specimen No. 150201), Bulbus Allii Sativi ( Allium sativum L., voucher specimen No. 150202), Fructus Zizyphi ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill., voucher specimen No. 150203), Semen Zizyphi ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill., voucher specimen No. 150204), Rhizoma Zingberis ( Zingiber officinale Rosc., voucher specimen No
Monta Madelāne, Angelika Krūmiņa, Raimonds Sīmanis, Ģirts Šķenders, Andrejs Ivanovs, Gunta Stūre and Ludmila Vīksna
Abad-Fernandez, M., Vallejo, A., Hernandez-Novoa, B., Diaz, L., Gutierrez, C., Madrid, N., Angeles Munoz, M., Moreno, S. (2013). Correlation between different methods to measure microbial translocation and its association with immune activation in long-term supressed HIV-1 infected individuals. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. , 64 , 149–153.
Albillos, A., de la Hera, A., Gonzalez, M., Moya, J.-L., Calleja, J.-L., Monserrat, J., Riuz-del-Arbol, L., Alvarez-Mon, M. (2003). Increased lipopolysaccharide binding protein in cirrhotic patients
Alexandra Padova, Ivana Rokytova, Boris Mravec, Richard Kvetnansky and Peter Vargovic
Objectives. Despite extensive research efforts, mechanisms participating on development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are covered only partially. Data from the last decades indicate that various stressors, as etiological factors, may play a role of in the AD. Therefore, we investigated the effect of two acute stressors, immobilization (IMO) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on the AD-related neuropathology.
Methods. Adult C57BL/6J mice males were exposed to a single IMO stress or a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (250 µg/kg body weight). After terminating the experiments, the brains were removed and their cortices isolated. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as expression of genes implicated in the AD neuropathology were determined. In addition, mediators related to the activation of the microglia, monocytes, and perivascular macrophages were determined in brain cortices, as well.
Results. In comparison with the control animals, we found increased gene expression of proinflammatory mediators in mice brain cortex in both IMO and LPS groups. In stressed animals, we also showed an increased expression of genes related to the AD neuropathology, as well as positive correlations between genes implicated in AD development and associated neuroinflammation.
Conclusions. Our data indicate that acute exposure to a strong IMO stressor, composed of the combined physical and psychological challenges, induces similar inflammatory and other ADrelated neuropathological changes as the immune LPS treatment. Our data also indicate that cytokines are most likely released from the peripheral immune cells, as we detected myeloid cells activity, without any microglia response. We hypothesize that stress induces innate immune response in the brain that consequently potentiate the expression of genes implicated in the AD-related neuropathology.
Ali Hajimohammadi, Khalil Badiei, Parviz Kheibari, Meherdad Pourjafar and Aliasghar Chalmeh
. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, are an integral part of the outer membrane of the cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria ( 28 ). LPS stimulate many adverse systemic reactions and trigger the release of pro-inflammatory mediators ( 27 , 32 ). Over the past years, several therapeutic strategies have been designed for treatment and prevention of endotoxaemia. Therapies suggested for Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock involve utilisation of antibiotics to control the infection and intensive care support to correct the underlying dysfunctions in circulatory
Eun-Jin Yang, Eun-Young Yim, Gwanpil Song, Gi-Ok Kim and Chang-Gu Hyun
proteolysis of I kappa B-alpha is necessary for activation of transcription factor NF-kappa B. Nature 365 : 182-185.
Hsieh YH, Kuo PM, Chien SC, Shyur LF and Wang SY. (2007) Effects of Chamaecyparis formosensis Matasumura extractives on lipopolysaccharide-induced release of nitric oxide. Phytomedicine 14 : 675-680.
Kim BH, Hong SS, Kwon SW, Lee HY, Sung H, Lee IJ, Hwang BY, Song S, Lee CK, Chung D, Ahn B, Nam SY, Han SB and Kim Y. (2008) Diarctigenin, a lignan constituent from Arctium lappa , down