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lipid peroxidation: mechanisms and analysis. Chem Rev. 2011;10:5944-72. 17. Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S. Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal. Oxid Med Cell Longev . 2014;360438. 18. Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, Decaraman M, Aravindan P, Padmanabhan N, et al. Anti-diabetic activity of Syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Plant Res. 2008;2:246-9. 19. Bedekar A, Shah K, Koffas M, Allen IL, Sima S, Geoffrey MG. Chapter 2


The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in combination with being physiologically stressed often occurs in in the course of different pathologies. This situation may result in the alteration of digestive system functioning. The effect of stress brings about changes in the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), arginase, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipid peroxidation, whereas the use of NSAIDs interrupts the multiple functions of the cell via the inhibition of prostaglandins (PGs) synthesis. Taking into account that NOS and COX-systems are connected in their regulation, the aim of the study was to determine the role played by NOS and lipid peroxidation under conditions of the combined action of NSAIDs and stress. In our study, male rats were used. The NSAIDs (naproxen - a non-selective COX inhibitor, celecoxib - a selective COX-2 blocker, and the compound 2A5DHT (which is the active substance of dual COX, and the lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor, darbufelone) were all administered at a dose 10 mg/kg, prior to water restraint stress (WRS). WRS brought about an increase of inducible NOS (iNOS) activity in the intestinal mucosal and muscular membranes, as well as in the pancreas. Because of this, constitutive NOS izoform (cNOS) and arginase activities decreased. Moreover, the MDA concentration increased, indicating the development of oxidative stress. In our work, pretreatment with naproxen, as in the WRS model, engendered a decrease in iNOS activity. What is more, administration of Celecoxib did not change iNOS activity, as compared to WRS alone, and it showed a tendency to reduce lipid peroxidation. In addition, 2A5DHT prior WRS brought about a decrease of iNOS activity, with the subsequent rise of cNOS activity. Of note, MDA concentration decreased in all studied organs, indicating the reduction of lipid peroxidation under the action of the darbufelone active substance.

. Malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, is mutagenic in human cells. J Biol Chem 2003;278:31426-33. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M212549200 16. Pamplona R. Advanced lipoxidation end-products. Chem-Biol Interact 2011;192:14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.007 17. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell B 2007;39:44-84. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001 18. Matés JM. Efffects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species

deterioration during accelerated aging of sunflower seeds. Physiol. Plant. 97: 104-110. Bor M., Ozdemir F., Turkan I. 2003. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. and wild beet Beta maritima L. Plant Sci. 164: 77-84. Cameron A.C., Reid M.S. 2001. 1-MCP blocks ethylene- induced petal abscission of Pelargonium peltatum but the effect is transient. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 22: 169-177. Costa M.L., Civello P.M., Chaves A.R., Martínez G.A. 2006. Hot air treatment decreases chlorophyll catabolism during

., Mäestu J. The influence of increased training volume on cytokines and ghrelin concentration in college level male rowers. Eur J Appl Physiol , 2008 (Epub ahead of print). Rong C., Bei H., Yun M., Yuzhu W., Mingwu Z. Lung function and cytokine levels in professional athletes. J Asthma , 2008. 45: 343-348. Sagrista M. L., Garcia A. E., Africa De Madariaga M., Mora M. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effect of the thiolic compounds N-acetyl-L-cysteine and glutathione against free radical-induced lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Res , 2002. 36: 329-340. Steinberg J. G., Ba A

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