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This paper introduces a method of data clustering that is based on linguistically specified rules, similar to those applied by a human visually fulfilling a task. The method endeavors to follow these remarkable capabilities of intelligent beings. Even for most complicated data patterns a human is capable of accomplishing the clustering process using relatively simple rules. His/her way of clustering is a sequential search for new structures in the data and new prototypes with the use of the following linguistic rule: search for prototypes in regions of extremely high data densities and immensely far from the previously found ones. Then, after this search has been completed, the respective data have to be assigned to any of the clusters whose nuclei (prototypes) have been found. A human again uses a simple linguistic rule: data from regions with similar densities, which are located exceedingly close to each other, should belong to the same cluster. The goal of this work is to prove experimentally that such simple linguistic rules can result in a clustering method that is competitive with the most effective methods known from the literature on the subject. A linguistic formulation of a validity index for determination of the number of clusters is also presented. Finally, an extensive experimental analysis of benchmark datasets is performed to demonstrate the validity of the clustering approach introduced. Its competitiveness with the state-of-the-art solutions is also shown.


This paper investigates the nature of creativity in language and linguistics. Following Sampson (2016), it distinguishes between F-creativity (which roughly equals linguistic productivity) and E-creativity (which leads to new and unexpected innovations). These two notions of creativity are discussed on the basis of examples from three different domains: snow cloning, mismatch/coercion, and aberration. It is shown that pure E-creativity may only be found in the case of aberration. Both snow cloning and mismatch/coercion are examples for F-creativity, but to varying degrees. As a consequence, it is suggested that in practice, F- and E-creativity actually form a cline, rather than a dichotomy.

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of the brain and the mechanism of verbal and non-verbal communication. Sastra explains the 99 left side of the human brain regulates the linguistic rules of language, and the right side regulates the use of language. Therefore, the use of language for communication depends on the treatment of the early development of the brain. There is some possible treatments for some reasons. The human brain requires learning strategies in the process of studying to optimize the function of the left and right side of the brain. This process is also significant for