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Functional Literacy in People's Lives

The paper presents the results of a qualitative study into the lives of people with inadequate functional literacy skills. The data were collected through a biographical interview with a respondent whose characteristics correspond to those of a hypothetical person likely to exhibit signs of low functional literacy. The characteristics, such as gender, age, parental education achievements and job history, of this hypothetical person have been derived from the results of research into adult functional literacy undertaken in the Czech Republic in 1998-International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). The analysis of the qualitative data focuses on three domains of the respondent's life, namely her family life, her school years, and her life style. The paper identifies the coping strategies used by the respondent in her everyday life.

Motivation and life style of the Czech amenity migrants (case study)

Amenity migration is a specific type of migration which is not motivated by higher wages - it has been brought about by the desire to render more valuable natural or socio-cultural environment of the target territory, and it is often directed from metropolitan to rural areas. The group of amenity migrants from chosen areas of the Czech Republic was described and identified on basis of collected empirical data set. Results are discussed with relevant authors who currently study amenity migration abroad. It follows from the mentioned results that amenity migrants in model areas are rather university educated, economically strong and more creative. They prefer natural amenities to cultural ones, their in-migration is not related to tourism and second homes phenomenon as it was expected earlier. They use current residential potential for permanent living in the amenity-rich places.

Abstract

Association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of two common mental health problems, i.e., depression and anxiety, and their lifestyle determinants in a large sample of Iranian population.

This study was conducted within the framework of SEPAHAN population based cross-sectional study (N=4763(. The General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ) was used to assess physical activity and the Iranian-validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method for data analysis by SPSS version 16.0. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

The risk of anxiety and depression was 2.5 (OR=2.56,95% CI: 1.97-3.33) and 2.21(1.83-2.67) times higher in women than men, respectively. With every one-year increase in the age, the risk of anxiety decreased by 2% (OR=0.98,95% CI:0.97-0.99). Individuals with higher education had 56% lower risk of anxiety (OR=0.44,95% CI: 0.36-0.55) and 46% depression (OR=0.54,95% CI: 0.46-0.64) than the undergraduate group, and the risk of depression in the inactive (less than one hour of activity per week) group was 27% higher than the active group (OR=1.27,95% CI: 1.06-1.51). The risk of anxiety in the non-smoker group was 65% (OR=0.35,95% CI: 0.20-0.59) and depression was 64% lower than among smokers (OR=0.34,95% CI:0.22-0.53). In the ex-smoker group, the risk of anxiety was 60% (OR=0.40,95% CI:0.19-0.85) and depression was 59% lower than for the smoker group (OR=0.41,95% CI: 0.24-0.73).

This current study’s results demonstrated significant associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and increased risk of anxiety and depression. Hence, special attention must be paid to preventive intervention programmes aiming to enhance healthy lifestyle among at-risk populations.

Abstract

Introduction. Health practices have been a subject of theoretical and empirical discussions among experts from various fields of knowledge. They are analyzed more and more closely, regarding their connection with specific diseases. Because cancer is one of the main causes of death in Poland, it is very important to learn more about pro-health behaviors undertaken by cancer patients.

Aim. An attempt was made to establish if pro-health activities and their separate categories regarding cancer patients are preconditioned by socio-demographic variables.

Material and methods. The research was conducted on the group of 100 cancer patients. Diagnostic poll method, survey technique was used when conducting this study. Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) by Zygfryd Juczyński was the research tool. STATISTICA 12 and Microsoft Office Excel were used to analyze the gathered data. Statistical significance of p<0.05 was assumed which indicated statistically important differences or correlations.

Results. There was no association between sex, marital status, place of residence, education level, financial situation and prohealth activities undertaken by cancer patients. Average HBI score for the whole group amounted to 78.47±15.80 which is average. The highest level of pro-health behavior was observed in Proper Eating Habits subscale and the lowest level of pro-health behavior was observed in Health Practices category.

Conclusions. The knowledge gained on the basis of the conducted research will constitute a valuable hint regarding deficits in the observance of the principles of health culture in patients with cancer.

Abstract

Objective: Today, a majority of the world population is dealing with physical inactivity and related health problems. Moreover, while various interventions are being adopted to increase children’s physical activity, these are mostly lessor even un-successful. One of the possible reasons for this could be the wrong timing for their instalment. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to analyse between-day and within-day physical activity in 5- to 8-year old children.

Methods: Using accelerometers we monitored 97 Slovenian children (49 males) for five consecutive days.

Results: We found that 5- to 8- year old Slovenian children are physically active on average between 689 and 795 counts per minute, with age and gender significant factors, however both with low effect size. The average data was in line with the trends of the world’s population. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was never measured in 5- to 8- year old children and we found it to be significantly longer than in slightly older children. Furthermore, we have defined the time periods with the lowest physical activity, which is in the morning, after the breakfast. Additionally, there are some age differences, with 5-year olds being most active before lunch but less physically active in the early afternoon.

Conclusions: In conclusion we have to emphasize and implicate to next generation studies to indicate time periods with the lowest physical activity and to promote physical activity interventions in those periods to achieve the greatest impact.

Abstract

Occupational health and safety nowadays is beginning to be seen in a multi-interdisciplinary way. Man's lifestyle also contributes to safety at work and work efficiency. The employee performs tasks at a specific place and time, however, this work is also affected by elements of private life. This paper deals with the impact of private life and lifestyle on human professional work in the areas of work safety and its efficiency. The research has been conducted on the basis of the opinions of employees.

Health product advertising through news in lifestyle magazines

Background: In addition to doctors, the mass media are the key source of information about health issues. It is therefore very important what kind of messages they produce and convey. Some media researchers called attention to paid-for health-related texts, published as editorial content without being labelled as advertisements (now commonly referred to as advertorials). There is a lack of studies investigating the practice of such messages production.

Methods: The aim of the study is to fill the gap in this research field by identifying characteristics of unlabelled health-related advertorials and thus give the readers the mechanisms they need to recognise them. Textual analysis of unlabelled health-related advertorials published by three Slovenian lifestyle magazines was combined with an ethnographic study.

Results: Textual analysis indicated that readers can recognise advertorials by the partial and positive-only presentation of health-related products/services, which are described and promoted by using synonyms of effectiveness. Observation and in-depth interviews showed that the key actors in the production process are advertisers and newspaper marketing agents. Advertisers want to have control over texts presenting their products/services. Marketing agents stress poor financial situation of their magazines. News producers claim that they carry out orders given by advertisers and marketing agents.

Conclusion: By publishing unlabelled advertorials, lifestyle magazines privilege a pharmaceutical-commercial attitude to health. They promote the pharmaceutical industry by presenting it one-sidedly and in a simplified way, and by ascribing to it the capacity to solve health problems of people in a non-problematic way. A more complex social view of health issues, however, is neglected.

Sport and Physical Activities in the Czech Republic

The situation on the field of physical/sportive activities in Czech Republic has been affected in the course of recent decades with fundamental political, economical and cultural changes of transforming society and general situation of workforce in context of sedentary society in particular. To contribute to increasing knowledge of the present-day position of sport in the Czech Republic means to search the relevant relations of municipalities and their policies to various levels of sport. To discuss the situation of sport includes describing the present position and role of sport activities in different societal and demografic parts of society too. From the perspective of the situation in sport delivery at the municipal level it must be borne in mind that there are diverse voluntary sports organizations in existence within the municipality, and, naturally, there is also the private sector. Underlying health determinants of a socioeconomic nature play a major role in causing vulnerability to health risks, including obesity as relevant negative reflection of passive way of life. Representative documents retrieved on national and school policies reflected by findings of the PREVOB Project confirmed mutually dependent and interconnected topical issues like nutrition policy and physical activity policy. The phenomenon of physical/sportive activity is connected with lifestyle behaviours. The most critical policy area on physical/sportive activity is the sole fact of sedentary nature of contemporary society: a very high level of prestige of sport and sportive activities in Czech society is incompatible with a very low level of practical regular physical or sport activities.

Natur- und kulturbedingte Differenzen zwischen Nord und Süd, Ost und West Hans Klein* Nature- and Culture-bound Differences between North and South, East and West In this small essay, attention is drawn to the fact that the way people think and behave is influenced by the conditions of nature. Thinking has  experience as prerequisite. In the cooler North, nature is differently perceived than in the warmer South. Consequences result thereof, in what regards how one understands and shapes one’s existence. The differences in mentality and life-style between

: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 33(1): 75-02. 4. BAUMEISTER, R. F., J. D. CAMPBELL, J. I. KRUEGER & K. D. VOHS, 2003. Does high selfesteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? In: Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1): 1-44. 5. BENDÍKOVÁ, E., 2010. Význam pohybovej aktivity v spôsobe života senioriek. [Meaning of physical activity in senior’s life style]. In. Telesná výchova a šport [Physical Education and Sport]. 20(4): 10-15. 6. BENDÍKOVÁ, E