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THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

Abstract

This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

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A Template For Enhancing The Impact of The National Academy of Sciences’ Reporting on Forensic Science

of Forensic DNA Evidence (1996). published two reports on the forensic use of DNA technology. In these reports, the NAS encouraged the criminal justice system to harness DNA technology—when conducted according to approved procedures—due to its evidence-based high reliability. Id . Subsequently, federal bodies commissioned the NAS to report on the probative value of other, non-DNA forensic science techniques. The report, The Polygraph and Lie Detection (2003) was commissioned by the United States Department of Energy, Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead

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Examiner Approach and its Impact on Polygraph Results

Reference Barland G.H. (1975), Detection of Deception in Criminal Suspects: A Field Validation Study, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah. Ben-Shakhar G., Bar-Hillel M., Lieblich I. (1986), Trial by Polygraph: Scientific and Juridical Issues in Lie Detection, Behavioral Science and the Law, 4, 459–479. Ben-Shakhar G., Furedy J.J. (1990), Theories and Applications in the Detection of Deception: A Psycho-physiological and International Perspective, Springer-Verlag, New York. Deskovic v. City of Peekskill et al, U.S District

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Experiments in Using Face Temperature Changes as an Indicator in Instrumental Detection of Deception

References [1] Gołaszewski M., Zając P., Widacki J. (2015), Thermal Vision as a Method of Detection of Deception , European Polygraph, 9, 1, p. 31. [2] US Patent 6996256, patent EP 1286620 (Detection system and method using thermal image analysis, 2006). [3] Patent EP 0885587 (Thermal imaging method and apparatus, 1998). [4] Widacki J., Widacki M., Antos J. (2016), Preparation to Experimental Testing of the Potential from Using Face Temperature Changes Registered with an Infrared Camera in Lie Detection , European Polygraph, 10, 1, p. 35

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Redefining the Road for the Industry

References [1] Trovillo P.Y., “A History of Lie Detection,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 1939, 29, 848–881. The article can also be found reprinted in Poly-graph 1972, Vol. 1, No. 2–3, pp. 151–160. [2] Matte J.A., Forensic Psychophysiology Using the Polygraph , Williamsville NY, JAM Publications 1996, pp. 41–42. [3] Reid J., Inbau F., 1977, “Trust and Deception”, William Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 215–228. [4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garbage_in,_garbage_out . [5] American Polygraph Association

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A Theoretical Analysis of the Directed Lie Question (DLC)

). Validation of Potential Response Elements in the Directed Lie Question. Polygraph 28 (2), 124-142. Reid, J.E. (1947). A Revised Questioning Technique in Lie Detection Tests. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 37 (6), 542-547.

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Chicago: Birthplace of Modern Polygraphy

Bar Association, 2, 22–31. National Research Council. (2003). The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Office of Technology Assessment (1983). Scientific Validity of Polygraph Testing: A Research Review and Evaluation – A Technical Memorandum (Rep. No. OTA-TM-H-15), Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Reid, J. (1945). Simulated Blood Pressure Responses in Lie

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Setting the Record Concering the Differences Between the Matte Quadri-Track and the Backster Zone Comparison Techniques

Company. Ekman, P. (September 1986). Telling Lies. New York, NY: Berkley Books. Matte, J. A. (December 1978). Polygraph Quadri-Zone Comparison Technique. Polygraph , Vol. 7, No. 4. Matte, J. A. (1980). The Art and Science of the Polygraph Technique . Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher. Matte, J. A. (1996). Forensic Psychophysiology Using The Polygraph: Scientific Truth Verification – Lie Detection. Williamsville, New York: J.A.M. Publications. Matte, J. A. (July 2007). Psychological structure and theoretical concept

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